Uber-anatomy Ontology (UBERON)

Uberon is an integrated cross-species anatomy ontology representing a variety of entities classified according to traditional anatomical criteria such as structure, function and developmental lineage. The ontology includes comprehensive relationships to taxon-specific anatomical ontologies, allowing integration of functional, phenotype and expression data.

Open in the Ontology Lookup Service (OLS)


1st arch mandibular component [UBERON_0007237]

[1st arch mandibular component; ventral mandibular arch; anatomical entity; embryonic structure; is part of; pharyngeal arch 1]

1st arch mandibular mesenchyme [UBERON_0009584]

Mesenchyme that is part of a 1st arch mandibular component.

1st arch mandibular mesenchyme from head mesenchyme [UBERON_0010339]

Mesenchyme that develops_from a head mesenchyme from mesoderm and is part of a 1st arch mandibular mesenchyme.

1st arch mandibular mesenchyme from neural crest [UBERON_0010252]

Mesenchyme that develops_from a neural crest and is part of a 1st arch mandibular mesenchyme.

1st arch mesenchyme [UBERON_0010042]

Mesenchyme that is part of a pharyngeal arch 1.

1st arch mesenchyme from head mesenchyme [UBERON_0010341]

Mesenchyme that develops_from a head mesenchyme from mesoderm and is part of a 1st arch mesenchyme.

1st arch mesenchyme from neural crest [UBERON_0010259]

Mesenchyme that develops_from a neural crest and is part of a 1st arch mesenchyme.

4th arch ectoderm [UBERON_0005662]

An ectoderm that is part of a pharyngeal arch 4.

4th arch endoderm [UBERON_0005666]

An endoderm that is part of a pharyngeal arch 4.

4th arch mesenchyme [UBERON_0005691]

Mesenchyme that is part of a pharyngeal arch 4.

4th arch mesenchyme from head mesenchyme [UBERON_0010345]

Mesenchyme that develops_from a head mesenchyme from mesoderm and is part of a 4th arch mesenchyme.

4th arch mesenchyme from neural crest [UBERON_0010256]

Mesenchyme that develops_from a neural crest and is part of a 4th arch mesenchyme.

6th arch mesenchyme [UBERON_0010031]

Mesenchyme that is part of a pharyngeal arch 6.

6th arch mesenchyme from head mesenchyme [UBERON_0010347]

Mesenchyme that develops_from a head mesenchyme from mesoderm and is part of a 6th arch mesenchyme.

6th arch mesenchyme from neural crest [UBERON_0010257]

Mesenchyme that develops_from a neural crest and is part of a 6th arch mesenchyme.

abdomen [UBERON_0000916]

The subdivision of the vertebrate body between the thorax and pelvis. The ventral part of the abdomen contains the abdominal cavity and visceral organs. The dorsal part includes the abdominal section of the vertebral column.

abdomen blood vessel [UBERON_0003497]

A blood vessel that is part of an abdomen [Automatically generated definition].

abdomen connective tissue [UBERON_0003567]

A portion of connective tissue that is part of an abdomen [Automatically generated definition].

abdomen element [UBERON_0005172]

An organ or element that is in the abdomen. Examples: spleen, intestine, kidney, abdominal mammary gland.

abdomen musculature [UBERON_0002343]

Set of all muscles in abdomen.

abdomen nerve [UBERON_0003429]

A nerve that is part of an abdomen [Automatically generated definition].

abdominal aorta [UBERON_0001516]

Abdominal part of aorta: the distal part of the descending aorta, which is the continuation of the thoracic part and gives rise to the inferior phrenic, lumbar, median sacral, superior and inferior mesenteric, middle suprarenal, renal, and testicular or ovarian arteries, and celiac trunk[BTO]. The abdominal aorta is the largest artery in the abdominal cavity. As part of the aorta, it is a direct continuation of descending aorta(of the thorax). [WP,unvetted].

abdominal aorta artery [UBERON_0012254]

An artery that originates from the abdominal aorta.

abdominal cavity [UBERON_0003684]

The part of the ventral body cavity that is within the abdomen proper (excluding the pelvic cavity).

abdominal ganglion [UBERON_0009758]

A ganglion that is part of a abdominal segment of trunk.

abdominal segment blood vessel [UBERON_0003835]

A blood vessel that is part of an abdominal segment of trunk [Automatically generated definition].

abdominal segment bone [UBERON_0003828]

A bone that is part of an abdominal segment of trunk [Automatically generated definition].

abdominal segment connective tissue [UBERON_0003838]

A portion of connective tissue that is part of an abdominal segment of trunk [Automatically generated definition].

abdominal segment element [UBERON_0005173]

An organ or element that is part of the adbominal segment of the organism. This region can be further subdivided into the abdominal cavity and the pelvic region.

abdominal segment muscle [UBERON_0003833]

A muscle organ that is part of an abdominal segment of trunk [Automatically generated definition].

abdominal segment of trunk [UBERON_0002417]

The abdominal segment of the torso.

abdominal segment skin [UBERON_0003836]

A skin of body that is part of an abdominal segment of trunk [Automatically generated definition].

abdominal viscera [UBERON_0017672]

A viscus that is part of a abdomen.

abdominal wall [UBERON_0003697]

The tissues that surround the organs that are present within the abdominal cavity. The abdominal wall tissue is composed of layers of fat, parietal peritoneum, fascia, and muscles.

abdominopelvic cavity [UBERON_0035819]

The part of the ventral body cavity that is within the abdominal segment of the trunk, which encompasses the abdomen proper plus pelvic cavity.

acellular anatomical structure [UBERON_0000476]

Anatomical structure that consists of cell parts and cell substances and together does not constitute a cell or a tissue.

acellular membrane [UBERON_0005764]

An acellular anatomical structure that is the bounding layer of a anatomical structure.

acinus of exocrine gland [UBERON_0011858]

An acinus that is part of a exocrine gland.

adipose tissue [UBERON_0001013]

Portion of connective tissue composed of adipocytes enmeshed in areolar tissue.

adipose tissue of abdominal region [UBERON_0007808]

Adipose tissue that is located in the abdominal region. This includes any subcutaneous fat, visceral fat or encapsulated adipose tissue depots.

adult organism [UBERON_0007023]

A multicellular organism that existence_ends_with a post-juvenile adult stage and existence_starts_with a post-juvenile adult stage.

adventitia [UBERON_0005742]

An outermost connective tissue covering of an organ, vessel, or other structure[WP].

adventitia of esophagus [UBERON_0012504]

An adventitia that is part of a esophagus.

air in respiratory system [UBERON_0034874]

Any portion of gas located in a part of the respiratory system that is composed primarily of air.

airway submucosal gland [UBERON_8410077]

A submucosal gland found in a respiratory tract.

alimentary part of gastrointestinal system [UBERON_0005409]

The part of the digestive system that excludes the hepatobiliary system.

allantois [UBERON_0004340]

A membranous sac that develops from the posterior part of the alimentary canal in the embryos of mammals, birds, and reptiles, and it is important in the formation of the umbilical cord and placenta in mammals[VHOG].

amniotic fold [UBERON_0005971]

A sheet of somatopleure that grows upward over the embryo and eventually meets in the midline enclosing the embryo, eventually giving rise to the amnion and chorion[Kardong].

anal canal [UBERON_0000159]

The terminal part of the large intestine, continuous proximally with the rectum and distally terminates with the anus.

anal canal epithelium [UBERON_0015716]

An epithelium that is part of a anal canal.

anal membrane ectodermal component [UBERON_0014703]

A unilaminar epithelium that develops_from a ectoderm and is part of a anal region.

anal membrane endodermal component [UBERON_0009521]

An endoderm that is part of a anal region.

anal region [UBERON_0001353]

The anus and surrounding regions. Encompasses both internal and external regions, where present.

anal region skeletal muscle [UBERON_0004832]

A portion of skeletal muscle tissue that is part of an anal region [Automatically generated definition].

anal region smooth muscle [UBERON_0004231]

A portion of smooth muscle tissue that is part of an anal region [Automatically generated definition].

anal sphincter [UBERON_0004916]

A sphincter muscle that is part of a anal region.

anatomical cavity [UBERON_0002553]

Anatomical space which contains portions of one or more body substances and is bounded by the internal surface of one maximally connected anatomical structure. Examples: cranial cavity, pharyngeal recess space, nasal cavity, tooth socket, cavity of serous sac, lumen of stomach, lumen of artery, fornix of vagina.

anatomical cluster [UBERON_0000477]

Anatomical group that has its parts adjacent to one another.

anatomical collection [UBERON_0034925]

A collection of anatomical structures that are alike in terms of their morphology or developmental origin.

anatomical conduit [UBERON_0004111]

Any tube, opening or passage that connects two distinct anatomical spaces.

anatomical conduit space [UBERON_0013686]

An anatomical space which is the lumen of some anatomical conduit and connects two or more spaces together[FMA,modified].

anatomical entity [UBERON_0001062]

Biological entity that is either an individual member of a biological species or constitutes the structural organization of an individual member of a biological species.

anatomical junction [UBERON_0007651]

An anatomical structure that connects two structures.

anatomical lobe [UBERON_0009912]

A portion of an organ, such as the liver, lung, breast, or brain.

anatomical space [UBERON_0000464]

Non-material anatomical entity of three dimensions, that is generated by morphogenetic or other physiologic processes; is surrounded by one or more anatomical structures; contains one or more organism substances or anatomical structures.

anatomical structure [UBERON_0000061]

Material anatomical entity that is a single connected structure with inherent 3D shape generated by coordinated expression of the organism’s own genome.

anatomical surface [UBERON_0006984]

A two dimensional anatomical structure that is the boundary between an anatomical structure and an anatomical substance, an anatomical space or the organism’s environment. Examples include the surface of your skin, the surface of the lining of your gut; the surface of the endothelium of you aorta that is in contact with blood.n Old definition: ‘Non-material anatomical entity of two dimensions, that is demarcated by anatomical lines or points on the external or internal surfaces of anatomical structures.’ Note, in the new definition, the space referred to is not necessarily an anatomical space. It may be the outside of an organism.

anatomical surface region [UBERON_0036215]

Material anatomical entity that forms the outermost boundary of an anatomical structure.

anatomical system [UBERON_0000467]

Multicellular, connected anatomical structure that has multiple organs as parts and whose parts work together to achieve some shared function.

anatomical wall [UBERON_0000060]

Organ component adjacent to an organ cavity and which consists of a maximal aggregate of organ component layers.

anlage [UBERON_0007688]

Anlagen are populations of contiguous cells, typically arranged in one plane, that are morphologically indistinct, but that already correspond in extent to a later organ/tissue.

anorectum [UBERON_8410050]

A subdivision of the digestive tract in humans that includes the rectum, the anal canal and the anus.

anterior chamber epithelium [UBERON_0005638]

An epithelium that is part of a anterior chamber of eyeball.

anterior chamber of eyeball [UBERON_0001766]

The space in the eye, filled with aqueous humor, and bounded anteriorly by the cornea and a small portion of the sclera and posteriorly by a small portion of the ciliary body, the iris, and part of the crystalline lens.

anterior lateral plate mesoderm [UBERON_0009881]

[ALPM; anterior lateral plate mesoderm; mesoderm-derived structure; embryonic tissue; is part of; material anatomical entity]

anterior limiting lamina of cornea [UBERON_0004370]

A transparent homogeneous acellular layer, 6 to 9 um thick, lying between the basal lamina of the outer layer of stratified epithelium and the substantia propria of the cornea; it is considered to be a basement membrane.

anterior neural tube [UBERON_0003080]

[anterior neural tube; develops from; anatomical entity; is part of; embryonic structure; pre-chordal neural plate]

anterior region of body [UBERON_0000153]

[anterior_to; posterior region of body; only in taxon; organism subdivision; Bilateria; anterior region of body]

anterior segment of eyeball [UBERON_0001801]

Any of the parts of the eye that lie in front of, or ventral to, the lens (inclusive).

anterior stroma of cornea [UBERON_0003952]

The anterior segment of the lamellated connective tissue layer of the cornea.

anterior uvea [UBERON_0011892]

Front (ventral) portion of the vascular, pigmentary, or middle coat of the eye, including the ciliary body and the iris.

anterior vena cava [UBERON_0001585]

A vein that carries deoxygenated blood from the upper half of the body into the right atrium of the heart.

anterior wall of left ventricle [UBERON_0036288]

[heart left ventricle; is part of; anterior wall of left ventricle; in_anterior_side_of]

anterior wall of right ventricle [UBERON_0036289]

Region of wall of right ventricle which is continuous with the lateral and septal walls of right ventricle.

anus [UBERON_0001245]

Orifice at the opposite end of an animal’s digestive tract from the mouth. Its function is to expel feces, unwanted semi-solid matter produced during digestion, which, depending on the type of animal, may be one or more of: matter which the animal cannot digest, such as bones; food material after all the nutrients have been extracted, for example cellulose or lignin; ingested matter which would be toxic if it remained in the digestive tract; and dead or excess gut bacteria and other endosymbionts.

aorta [UBERON_0000947]

The main trunk of the systemic arterial system that carries blood from the heart to all the organs and other structures of the body, bringing oxygenated blood to all parts of the body in the systemic circulation.

aorta collagen fibril [UBERON_0011861]

The connective tissue bundles in the extracellular matrix of aorta tissue that are composed of collagen, and play a role in tissue strength and elasticity.

aorta elastic tissue [UBERON_0003609]

The dense connective tissue which contains predominantly elastic fibers and is found in the tunica media of the aorta wall.

aorta endothelium [UBERON_0004851]

The thin layer of flat cells that line the aorta and form a barrier between circulating blood in the lumen and the rest of the vessel wall.

aorta smooth muscle tissue [UBERON_0004178]

The nonstriated, involuntary muscle tissue located in the wall of the aorta.

aorta tunica adventitia [UBERON_0004664]

The outermost layer of the aorta wall, containing connective tissue and collagen and elastic fibers.

aorta tunica intima [UBERON_0003619]

The innermost layer of the aorta, containing the endothelium and an inner elastic membrane.

aorta tunica media [UBERON_0003618]

The middle layer of the aorta wall, containing the smooth muscle layer and elastic fibers.

aorta wall [UBERON_0004663]

An anatomical wall that is part of an aorta, enclosing the luminal space.

aortic sac [UBERON_0005432]

The dilated structure that is lined by endothelial cells and located at the arterial pole of the heart just above (distal to) the truncus arteriosus in mammalian embryos; it is the primordial vascular channel from which the aortic arches (and eventually the dorsal aortae) arise; the aortic sac is homologous to the ventral aorta of gill-bearing vertebrates.

aortic system [UBERON_0010191]

[Vertebrata ; only in taxon; is part of; organ system subdivision; aortic system; systemic arterial system]

aortico-pulmonary spiral septum [UBERON_0006207]

The spiral septum that separates the truncus arteriosus into a ventral pulmonary trunk and the dorsal aorta[MP]. The aorticopulmonary septum is developmentally formed from neural crest, specifically the cardiac neural crest, and actively separates the aorta and pulmonary arteries and fuses with the interventricular septum within the heart during development. The actual mechanism of septation of the outflow tract is poorly understood, but is recognized as a dynamic process with contributions from contractile, hemodynamic, and extracellular matrix interactions.

apical ectodermal ridge [UBERON_0004356]

Multilayered ectodermal region at the distal tip of a limb or fin bud necessary for the proper development of the underlying mesenchyme[MP,modified]. Along with the zone of polarizing activity, it is a crucial organizing region during limb development[WP].

appendage [UBERON_0000026]

Major subdivision of an organism that protrudes from the body[DOS, CARO].

appendage blood vessel [UBERON_0007301]

A blood vessel that is part of a limb/fin.

appendage girdle complex [UBERON_0010707]

An organism subdivision that includes both an appendage and its associated girdle region. Note that this includes both the skeletal elements and associated tissues (integument, muscle, etc).

appendage girdle region [UBERON_0007823]

An organism subdivision that encompasses the region containing the pectoral or pelvic girdle. Note that this includes both the skeletal elements and associated tissues (integument, muscle, etc).

appendage musculature [UBERON_0007271]

Any collection of muscles that is part of an appendage.

appendage vasculature [UBERON_0007304]

A vasculature that is part of a limb/fin.

appendicular skeletal system [UBERON_0011249]

Subdivision of the skeletal system which consists of the appendicular skeleton plus associated joints.

appendicular skeleton [UBERON_0002091]

Subdivision of skeleton which which consists of all the skeletal elements in in the pectoral and pelvic appendage complexes[cjm].

aqueous humor of eyeball [UBERON_0001796]

A thick watery refractive medium that fills the space between the lens and the cornea[WP].

arch of aorta [UBERON_0001508]

The convex portion of the aorta between the ascending and descending parts of the aorta; branches from it include the brachiocephalic trunk, the left common carotid artery, and the left subclavian artery; the brachiocephalic trunk further splits to form the right subclavian artery and the right common carotid artery.

arcuate ligament [UBERON_0015214]

A ligament that is part of a diaphragm.

areolar connective tissue [UBERON_0006815]

Loose connective tissue located at the outer and inner layers of organs. Examples: submucosal connective tissue, tunica adventitia of artery, papillary dermis, superficial fascia of dorsum of hand.

arterial blood [UBERON_0013755]

A blood that is part of a artery.

arterial blood vessel [UBERON_0003509]

A blood vessel that is part of the arterial system. Includes artery, arteriole and aorta. only in MA - supertype of artery, arteriole, aorta.

arterial system [UBERON_0004572]

The part of the cardiovascular system consisting of all arteries.

arterial system endothelium [UBERON_0004700]

An endothelium that is part of an arterial system [Automatically generated definition].

arterial system smooth muscle [UBERON_0004695]

A portion of smooth muscle tissue that is part of an arterial system [Automatically generated definition].

arteriole [UBERON_0001980]

The smallest division of the artery located between the muscular arteries and the capillaries[GO].

arteriole of anorectum [UBERON_8410009]

An arteriole that is located in the anorectum.

arteriole of colon [UBERON_8410015]

An arteriole located in the colon.

arteriole smooth muscle [UBERON_0004236]

A portion of smooth muscle tissue that is part of an arteriole [Automatically generated definition].

artery [UBERON_0001637]

An epithelial tube or tree of tibes that transports blood away from the heart[modified from AEO definition].

artery of lip [UBERON_0009657]

[labial artery; supplies; artery of lip]

artery of lower lip [UBERON_0003471]

The inferior labial artery (inferior labial branch of facial artery) arises near the angle of the mouth; it passes upward and forward beneath the Triangularis and, penetrating the Orbicularis oris, runs in a tortuous course along the edge of the lower lip between this muscle and the mucous membrane. It supplies the labial glands, the mucous membrane, and the muscles of the lower lip; and anastomoses with the artery of the opposite side, and with the mental branch of the inferior alveolar artery.

artery smooth muscle tissue [UBERON_0002111]

A portion of smooth muscle tissue that is part of an artery [Automatically generated definition].

artery wall [UBERON_0000415]

An anatomical wall that is part of an artery [Automatically generated definition].

arthropod sensillum [UBERON_0002536]

Sense organ embedded in the integument and consisting of one or a cluster of sensory neurons and associated sensory structures, support cells and glial cells forming a single organised unit with a largely bona-fide boundary.[FBbt].

arthropod tagma [UBERON_6000002]

One of the main divisions of the whole organism of arthropods formed from groups of segments. Strictly speaking the term “tagma” cam be used for any metameric organism, however we follow the common usage which is to restrict the term to arthropods.

articular capsule [UBERON_0001484]

An articular capsule (or joint capsule) is an envelope surrounding a synovial joint. [WP,unvetted].

articular system [UBERON_0004770]

Anatomical system that consists of all the joints of the body.

articulation [UBERON_0004905]

Anatomical cluster that connects two or more adjacent skeletal elements or hardened body parts.

ascending aorta [UBERON_0001496]

The ascending aorta is the portion of the aorta in a two-pass circulatory system that lies between the heart and the arch of aorta[GO]. A portion of the aorta commencing at the upper part of the base of the left ventricle, on a level with the lower border of the third costal cartilage behind the left half of the sternum; it passes obliquely upward, forward, and to the right, in the direction of the heart’s axis, as high as the upper border of the second right costal cartilage, describing a slight curve in its course, and being situated, about 6 cm behind the posterior surface of the sternum. The total length is about 5 cm in length [Wikipedia].

associated mesenchyme of foregut-midgut junction [UBERON_0009482]

Mesenchyme that is part of a foregut-midgut junction.

atrioventricular node [UBERON_0002352]

An area of conducting tissue between the atria and the ventricles of the heart that conducts the normal electrical impulse from the atria to the ventricles.

atrioventricular region [UBERON_0011820]

An anatomical junction that divides and overlaps with and atrium and a ventricle in the heart.

atrioventricular septum [UBERON_0005989]

The wall of the heart that separates the right atrium and left ventricle; and is located just above the septal cusp of the tricuspid valve.

atypical epithelium [UBERON_0000488]

Epithelium that consists of epithelial cells not arranged in one ore more layers.

auditory system [UBERON_0016490]

Is the sensory system for the sense of hearing.

autonomic ganglion [UBERON_0001805]

Ganglion that has dendrites that form a junction between autonomic nerves originating from the central nervous system and autonomic nerves innervating their target organs in the periphery. There are two subtypes, sympathetic ganglion and parasympathetic ganglion.

autonomic nerve [UBERON_0034728]

The autonomic nerve is a small nerve which carries postganglionic sympathetic and parasympathetic neurons from the zygomaticotemporal nerve; a branch of the maxillary nerve, to the lacrimal nerve; a branch of the ophthalmic nerve. These neurons derive from the superior cervical ganglion and the pterygopalatine ganglion respectively. They will travel to the lacrimal gland via the lacrimal nerve. Parasympathetic will induce lacrimation and vice versa.

autonomic nervous system [UBERON_0002410]

The autonomic nervous system is composed of neurons that are not under conscious control, and is comprised of two antagonistic components, the sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous systems. The autonomic nervous system regulates key functions including the activity of the cardiac (heart) muscle, smooth muscles (e.g. of the gut), and glands[GO].

axial mesoderm [UBERON_0003068]

The axial mesoderm includes the prechordal mesoderm and the chordamesoderm. It gives rise to the prechordal plate and to the notochord.

axial muscle [UBERON_0003897]

One of the skeletal muscles of the head and neck, spine, and ribs.

axial musculature [UBERON_0013700]

Musculature of the head and neck, spine, and ribs.

axial skeletal system [UBERON_0011137]

Subdivision of the skeletal system which consists of the axial skeleton plus associated joints.

axial skeleton plus cranial skeleton [UBERON_0005944]

Subdivision of skeleton which consists of cranial skeleton, set of all vertebrae, set of all ribs and sternum[FMA, modified].

back blood vessel [UBERON_0004258]

A blood vessel that is part of a back [Automatically generated definition].

back connective tissue [UBERON_0004267]

A portion of connective tissue that is part of a back [Automatically generated definition].

back nerve [UBERON_0004215]

A nerve that is part of a back [Automatically generated definition].

basal plate metencephalon [UBERON_0005239]

[basal plate metencephalon; metencephalon basal plate; neural tube basal plate]

basement membrane of epithelium [UBERON_0005769]

An acellular membrane that is part of the epithelium, lies adjacent to the epithelial cells, and is the fusion of the the basal lamina and the reticular lamina.

bilaminar disc [UBERON_0000091]

A flattened, almost circular bilaminar plate of cells formed when the inner cell mass (aka embryoblast) forms two epithelial layers, each of a distinct lineage, separated by an extracellular basement membrane: the external (dorsal) layer is called the epiblast and the internal (ventral) layer is called the hypoblast (aka primitive endoderm); together, they compose the bilaminar embryonic disc.

bile [UBERON_0001970]

Vital aqueous secretion of the liver that is formed by hepatocytes and modified down stream by absorptive and secretory properties of the bile duct epithelium.

bile duct [UBERON_0002394]

Any of the ducts that form the biliary tree, carrying bile from the liver to the small intestine.

bile duct epithelium [UBERON_0004820]

Any epithelium that lines one of the bile ducts.

biliary bud [UBERON_0004912]

[epithelial sac; hepatic diverticulum; is part of; develops from; endodermal part of digestive tract; epithelium of foregut-midgut junction; hepatobiliary system; biliary bud; septum transversum; digestive tract diverticulum]

biliary ductule [UBERON_0004058]

One of the fine terminal elements of the bile duct system, leaving the portal canal, and pursuing a course at the periphery of a lobule of the liver[BTO]. the excretory ducts of the liver that connect the interlobular ductules to the right or left hepatic duct[MP].

biliary system [UBERON_0002294]

Organ system subdivision that consists of the organs and ducts that are involved in the production and transportation of bile. In most species this is the gallbladder and the bile ducts (biliary tree).

biliary tree [UBERON_0001173]

A complex network of conduits that begins with the canals of Hering (intralobar bile duct) and progressively merges into a system of interlobular, septal, and major ducts which then coalesce to form the extrahepatic bile ducts, which finally deliver bile to the intestine, and in some species to the gallbladder. The path in many species is as follows: Bile canaliculi -> Canals of Hering (intralobar bile duct) -> interlobular bile ducts -> intrahepatic bile ducts -> left and right hepatic ducts merge to form -> common hepatic duct exits liver and joins -> cystic duct (from gall bladder) forming -> common bile duct -> joins with pancreatic duct -> forming ampulla of Vater -> enters duodenum [WP]

bladder organ [UBERON_0018707]

A membranous sac in animals that serves as the receptacle of a liquid or contains gas.

blastocyst [UBERON_0000358]

The mammalian blastocyst is a hollow ball of cells containing two cell types, the inner cell mass and the trophectoderm[GO].

blastula [UBERON_0000307]

Organism at the blastula stage - an early stage of embryonic development in animals. It is produced by cleavage of a fertilized ovum and consists of a spherical layer of around 128 cells surrounding a central fluid-filled cavity called the blastocoel. The blastula follows the morula and precedes the gastrula in the developmental sequence.

blastula stage [UBERON_0000108]

An early stage of embryonic development in animals. It is produced by cleavage of a fertilized ovum and consists of a spherical layer of around 128 cells surrounding a central fluid-filled cavity called the blastocoel. The blastula follows the morula and precedes the gastrula in the developmental sequence.

blood [UBERON_0000178]

A fluid that is composed of blood plasma and erythrocytes.

blood island [UBERON_0003061]

Blood islands are structures in the developing embryo which lead to many different parts of the circulatory system. They primarily derive from plexuses formed from angioblasts. Within them, vacuoles appear through liquefaction of the central part of the syncytium into plasma. The lumen of the blood vessels thus formed is probably intracellular. The flattened cells at the periphery form the endothelium. The nucleated red blood corpuscles develop either from small masses of the original angioblast left attached to the inner wall of the lumen or directly from the flat endothelial cells. In either case the syncytial mass thus formed projects from and is attached to the wall of the vessel. Such a mass is known as a blood island and hemoglobin gradually accumulates within it. Later the cells on the surface round up, giving the mass a mulberry-like appearance. Then the red blood cells break loose and are carried away in the plasma. Such free blood cells continue to divide. Blood islands have been seen in the area vasculosa in the omphalomesenteric vein and arteries, and in the dorsal aorta[WP, unvetted].

blood microvessel [UBERON_8410081]

Any of the smallest blood vessels where blood circulates within organ tissues. Microvessels include terminal arterioles, metarterioles, capillaries, and venules (but exclude lymphatic capillaries). Arterioles carry oxygenated blood to the capillaries, and blood flows out of the capillaries through venules into veins.

blood plasma [UBERON_0001969]

The liquid component of blood, in which erythrocytes are suspended.

blood vasculature [UBERON_0004537]

A vascular network consisting of blood vessels.

blood vessel [UBERON_0001981]

A vessel through which blood circulates in the body.

blood vessel elastic tissue [UBERON_0003614]

Elastic tissue layer that lines a blood vessel layer.

blood vessel endothelium [UBERON_0004638]

An endothelium that lines the blood vasculature. Other endothelia may line lymph vessels, the heart.

blood vessel layer [UBERON_0004797]

Any of the tissue layers that comprise a blood vessel. Examples: tunica media, tunica adventitia.

blood vessel smooth muscle [UBERON_0004237]

Smooth muscle found within, and composing the majority of the wall of blood vessels.

bodily fluid [UBERON_0006314]

Liquid components of living organisms. includes fluids that are excreted or secreted from the body as well as body water that normally is not.

bodily gas [UBERON_0034873]

Any substance in the body or expelled from the body that is in a gaseous state.

body external integument structure [UBERON_3000977]

Dermal, epidermal, glandular and pigment structures of the body integument.

body of stomach [UBERON_0001161]

The body of stomach is the part of the stomach that lies between the fundus above and the pyloric antrum below; its boundaries are poorly defined[GO].

body proper [UBERON_0013702]

The region of the organism associated with the visceral organs.

bona-fide anatomical boundary [UBERON_0010199]

An anatomical boundary that corresponds to some physical discontinuity. One might argue that all boundaries are actually fiat in the sense that there must be some fiat element at a fine enough scale of granularity. This ontology choses to ignore this issue as below the level of granularity relevant to anatomy. (DOS121102)

bone collagen fibril [UBERON_0011863]

The connective tissue bundles in the extracellular matrix of bone tissue that are composed of collagen, and play a role in tissue strength and elasticity.

bone element [UBERON_0001474]

Skeletal element that is composed of bone tissue.

bone foramen [UBERON_0005744]

Anatomical space that is an opening in a bone, usually for passage of blood vessels or nerves.

bone marrow [UBERON_0002371]

The soft tissue that fills the cavities of bones.

bone of appendage girdle complex [UBERON_0010740]

A bone that is part of an appendage girdle complex (i.e. any bone in a limb, fin or girdle).

bone of craniocervical region [UBERON_0007914]

A bone that is part of a craniocervical region.

bone of dorsum [UBERON_0004247]

A bone that is part of the dorsal region of an animal.

bone of free limb or fin [UBERON_0004375]

A bone that is part of an appendage [Automatically generated definition].

bone of jaw [UBERON_0012360]

A bone element that is part of a jaw region.

bone of lower jaw [UBERON_0004768]

Any bone that is part of the lower jaw skeleton. This includes (when present): the dentary/mandible, the articular, the splenial, the suprangular.

bone of pectoral complex [UBERON_0010741]

A bone that is part of a pectoral complex. Examples: scapula, manus phalanx, any carpal bone, any bone of the pectoral fin.

bone of pelvic complex [UBERON_0010742]

A bone that is part of a pelvic complex. Examples: pubis, ischium, fot phalanx, any tarsal bone, any bone of the pelvic fin or girdle.

bone of reproductive organ [UBERON_0007719]

A bone that is part of a reproductive organ.

bone tissue [UBERON_0002481]

Skeletal tissue with a collagen-rich extracellular matrix vascularized, mineralized with hydroxyapatite and typically including osteocytes located in lacunae that communicate with one another by cell processes (in canaliculi). Bone is deposited by osteoblasts.

brachiocephalic artery [UBERON_0001529]

The short first aortic arch branch and divides into the right subclavian artery and the right common carotid artery.

brachiocephalic vasculature [UBERON_0007204]

The vasculature consisting of brachiocephalic arteries and veins.

brachiocephalic vein [UBERON_0003711]

The left and right brachiocephalic veins in the upper chest are formed by the union of each corresponding internal jugular vein and subclavian vein. This is at the level of the sternoclavicular joint. These great vessels merge to form the superior vena cava. The brachiocephalic veins are the major veins returning blood to the superior vena cava.

brain [UBERON_0000955]

The brain is the center of the nervous system in all vertebrate, and most invertebrate, animals. Some primitive animals such as jellyfish and starfish have a decentralized nervous system without a brain, while sponges lack any nervous system at all. In vertebrates, the brain is located in the head, protected by the skull and close to the primary sensory apparatus of vision, hearing, balance, taste, and smell[WP].

brain blood vessel [UBERON_0003499]

A blood vessel that is part of a brain [Automatically generated definition].

brain endothelium [UBERON_0013694]

Vascular endothelium found in blood vessels of the blood-brain-barrier.

brain gray matter [UBERON_0003528]

A gray matter that is part of a brain [Automatically generated definition].

brainstem [UBERON_0002298]

Stalk-like part of the brain that includes amongst its parts the medulla oblongata of the hindbrain and the tegmentum of the midbrain[ZFA,MP,generalized]. ‘brainstem’ is a loose term that sometimes refers to the ventral parts o the brain except for any part of the telencephalon - sometimes it includes the diencephalon or subpallial telencephalon structures (ISBN:0471888893). Here we use it in a more restriced sense, to include only the medulla oblongata, pons (when present) and the midbrain tegmentum (following the ZFA definitions).

brainstem nucleus [UBERON_0006331]

A nucleus of brain that is part of a brainstem.

branch of external carotid artery [UBERON_0035398]

[branch of external carotid artery; external carotid arterial subdivision; branching part of; systemic artery; structure with developmental contribution from neural crest]

broad ligament of uterus [UBERON_0012332]

A broad fold of peritoneum that extends from the side of the uterus to the wall of the pelvis.

bronchial artery [UBERON_0002040]

A systemic artery that supplies the lung with with oxygenated blood. Although there is much variation, there are usually two bronchial arteries that run to the left lung, and one to the right lung.

bronchial lumen [UBERON_0012082]

An anatomical cavity that is part of a bronchus.

bronchial mucosa [UBERON_0000410]

A mucosa that is part of a bronchus [Automatically generated definition].

bronchial vein [UBERON_0001592]

The bronchial veins are small vessels that return blood from the larger bronchi and structures at the roots of the lungs. The right side drains into the azygos vein, while the left side drains into the left superior intercostal vein or the accessory hemiazygos vein. The bronchial veins are counterparts to the bronchial arteries. The veins, however, do not return all of the blood supplied by the arteries; much of the blood that is carried in the bronchial arteries is returned to the heart via the pulmonary veins. [WP,unvetted].

bronchiole [UBERON_0002186]

The conducting airway of the lungs found terminal to the bronchi; these structures contain neither cartilage nor mucous-secreting glands; the epithelium of the bronchioles becomes thinner with each branching.

bronchus [UBERON_0002185]

The upper conducting airways of the lung; these airways arise from the terminus of the trachea.

bronchus basement membrane [UBERON_0009652]

A basement membrane that is part of a bronchus.

bronchus connective tissue [UBERON_0003592]

A portion of connective tissue that is part of a bronchus [Automatically generated definition].

bronchus elastic tissue [UBERON_0003616]

An elastic tissue that is part of a bronchus [Automatically generated definition].

bronchus smooth muscle [UBERON_0004242]

A portion of smooth muscle tissue that is part of a bronchus [Automatically generated definition].

bronchus submucosal gland [UBERON_8410043]

A submucosal gland located in a bronchus.

buccopharyngeal membrane [UBERON_0006211]

The thin bilaminar membrane derived from the prechordal plate that is devoid of mesoderm and formed by the apposition of the stomodeal ectoderm with the foregut endoderm; after the embryonic head fold has evolved it lies at the caudal limit of the stomodeum, forming a septum between the primitive mouth and pharynx; the membrane eventually disappears, and thus a communication is established between the mouth and the future pharynx.

bulbus cordis [UBERON_0004706]

A transient fetal dilation of the distal (or cranial) heart tube located where the arterial trunk joins the ventral roots of the aortic arches.

bulbus cordis myocardium [UBERON_0005248]

A myocardium that is part of a bulbus cordis [Automatically generated definition].

camera-type eye [UBERON_0000019]

An organ of sight that includes the camera-type eyeball and supporting structures such as the lacrimal apparatus, the conjunctiva, the eyelid.

capillary [UBERON_0001982]

Any of the smallest blood vessels connecting arterioles with venules.

capillary blood [UBERON_0013757]

A blood that is part of a capillary.

capillary of anorectum [UBERON_8410056]

A capillary that is part of the anorectum.

capillary of brain [UBERON_8480001]

A capillary that is part of the brain.

capillary of colon [UBERON_8410057]

A capillary that is part of the colon.

capillary of small intestine [UBERON_8410068]

A capillary that is part of a small intestine.

capsule of lens [UBERON_0001804]

The elastic, clear, membrane-like structure, that is outer most layer of the lens.

cardiac atrium [UBERON_0002081]

Cardiac chamber in which blood enters the heart.

cardiac chamber [UBERON_0004151]

A cardiac chamber surrounds an enclosed cavity within the heart. generic enough to cover FBbt:00003156 heart chamber but this is a cavity. GO defines it as the cavity. TODO - move subclasses. Note this also includes sinus venosus

cardiac mesenchyme [UBERON_0009751]

The embryonic connective tissue made up of loosely aggregated mesenchymal cells, supported by interlaminar jelly, that gives rise to the developing cardiac structures.

cardiac muscle of left atrium [UBERON_0003380]

A portion of cardiac muscle tissue that is part of a left atrium [Automatically generated definition].

cardiac muscle of left ventricle [UBERON_0003382]

A portion of cardiac muscle tissue that is part of a left ventricle [Automatically generated definition].

cardiac muscle of right atrium [UBERON_0003379]

A portion of cardiac muscle tissue that is part of a right atrium [Automatically generated definition].

cardiac muscle of right ventricle [UBERON_0003381]

A portion of cardiac muscle tissue that is part of a right ventricle [Automatically generated definition].

cardiac muscle tissue [UBERON_0001133]

Muscle tissue composed of cardiac muscle cells, forming the muscles of the heart[ZFA,modified].

cardiac muscle tissue of atrium [UBERON_0004490]

A portion of cardiac muscle tissue that is part of an atrium [Automatically generated definition].

cardiac muscle tissue of cardiac septum [UBERON_0004492]

A portion of cardiac muscle tissue that is part of a cardiac septum [Automatically generated definition].

cardiac muscle tissue of interatrial septum [UBERON_0004491]

A portion of cardiac muscle tissue that is part of a interatrial septum [Automatically generated definition].

cardiac muscle tissue of interventricular septum [UBERON_0003383]

A portion of cardiac muscle tissue that is part of an interventricular septum [Automatically generated definition].

cardiac muscle tissue of myocardium [UBERON_0004493]

A portion of cardiac muscle tissue that is part of a myocardium [Automatically generated definition].

cardiac muscle tissue of ventricle [UBERON_0018649]

[cardiac muscle tissue of ventricle; cardiac ventricle; cardiac muscle tissue of myocardium; ventricular muscle; is part of; myocardium of ventricle]

cardiac neural crest [UBERON_0000095]

Portion of neural crest that develops from the dorsal neural tube. It overlaps the vagal neural crest and migrates to populate the pharyngeal arches 3, 4 and 6 (producing structures in the head) and to the heart, forming connective tissue that separates the great vessels of the heart. [Wikipedia].

cardiac Purkinje fiber [UBERON_0002354]

The cardiac Purkinje fiber is part of the cardiac conduction system that receives signals from the bundle of His and innervates the ventricular cardiac muscle.

cardiac septum [UBERON_0002099]

The thin membranous structure between the two heart atria or the thick muscular structure between the two heart ventricles.

cardiac skeleton [UBERON_0004292]

Dense connective tissue that separates the atria from the ventricles and provides physical support for the heart.

cardiac vein [UBERON_0004148]

Vein of heart that drains the myocardium.

cardiac ventricle [UBERON_0002082]

Cardiac chamber through which blood leaves the heart.

cardiogenic plate [UBERON_0004139]

The first recognizable structure derived from the heart field.

cardiogenic splanchnic mesoderm [UBERON_0007005]

The splanchnic mesoderm in the cardiogenic region where the heart develops; it gives rise to endocardial heart tubes that fuse to form the primordial cardiac tube, the heart primordium[web]. Two migratory heart primordia that move ventrally during the course of neurulation, and then fuse[XAO].

cardiopharyngeal field [UBERON_0036146]

An region of the mesoderm that includes anterior lateral mesoderm of the first heart field plus contiguous pharyngeal mesoderm that gives rise to second-heart-field-derived regions of the heart and branchiomeric muscles.

cardiovascular system [UBERON_0004535]

Anatomical system that has as its parts the heart and blood vessels.

cardiovascular system elastic tissue [UBERON_0003613]

An elastic tissue that is part of a circulatory system [Automatically generated definition].

cardiovascular system endothelium [UBERON_0004852]

An endothelium that is part of the cardiovascular system.

carotid artery endothelium [UBERON_0019189]

[carotid artery endothelium; is part of; carotid artery segment; carotid endothelium; endothelium of artery; carotid epithelium]

carotid artery segment [UBERON_0005396]

One of: the common carotid artery, or its branches, the external and internal carotid arteries.

cartilage element [UBERON_0007844]

Skeletal element that is composed of cartilage tissue and may be permanent or transient.

cartilage element of chondrocranium [UBERON_0003932]

A cartilage element of chondrocranium. Example: neurocranial trabecula.

cartilage of bronchus [UBERON_0001956]

The hyaline cartilaginous structures that support the bronchi, present as irregular rings in the larger bronchi (and not as regular as in the trachea), and as small plates and islands in the smaller bronchi; as the branching continues through the bronchial tree, the amount of hyaline cartilage in the walls decreases until it is absent in the smallest bronchioles[MP].

cartilage of respiratory system [UBERON_0003406]

A cartilage element that is part of a respiratory system [Automatically generated definition].

cartilage tissue [UBERON_0002418]

Skeletal tissue that is avascular, rich in glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) and typically includes chondrocytes within isolated lacunae. Cartilage tissue is deposited by chondroblasts. Previous: “A portion of connective tissue dominated by extracellular matrix containing collagen type II and large amounts of proteoglycan, particularly chondroitin sulfate[GO]. Regular connective tissue, which consists of chondrocytes and related cells, the intercellular matrix of which is chondrified. Examples: hyaline cartilage, fibrocartilage, elastic cartilage[FMA]. an avascular supporting and articular skeletal tissue. It also functions as the primary endoskeletal support in vertebrate embryos. Cartilage is deposited by and is composed of chondroblasts and chondrocytes separated by an extracellular matrix, which may or may not mineralize depending on cartilage type, age, or taxon[Hall and Witten].” See also FMA:71500 Set of cartilages, FMA:55107 Cartilage organ, FMA:12264 Articular cartilage. // elements made from cartilage, cartilage-like, or chondroid tissues evolved in invertebrates[H&W]

cartilaginous condensation [UBERON_0005863]

Cell condensation that is an aggregation of mesenchymal cells that are committed to differentiate into chondroblasts and chondrocytes.

cartilaginous joint [UBERON_0002213]

Nonsynovial joint in which the articulating bones or cartilages are connected by cartilage. Examples: Spheno-occipital synchondrosis, first sternocostal joint, pubic symphysis.[FMA].

cartilaginous neurocranium [UBERON_0004761]

The primitive cartilagionous skeletal structure of the fetal skull that grows to envelop the rapidly growing embyonic brain. In humans, the chondrocranium begins forming at 28 days from mesenchymal condensations and is fully formed between week 7 and 9 of fetal development. While the majority of the chondrocranium is succeeded by the bony skull in most higher vertebrates, some components do persist into adulthood.[1] In Cartilagious fishes and Agnathans, the chondrocranium persist throughout life.[2] Embryologically, the chondrocranium represent the basal cranial structure, and lay the base for the formation of the endocranium in higher vertebrates[WP].

cavitated compound organ [UBERON_0000489]

Compound organ that contains one or more macroscopic anatomical spaces.

cavity of cardiac chamber [UBERON_0035763]

[cavity of cardiac chamber; luminal space of; surrounded by; anatomical entity; anatomical cavity; endocardium; immaterial entity; cardiac chamber cavity]

cavity of left atrium [UBERON_0016513]

Luminal space of the left atrium of the heart.

cavity of left ventricle [UBERON_0016514]

Luminal space of the left ventricle of the heart.

cavity of pharynx [UBERON_0001731]

An anatomical space that is enclosed by a pharynx.

cavity of right atrium [UBERON_0016522]

Luminal space of the right atrium of the heart.

cavity of right ventricle [UBERON_0016509]

Luminal space of the right ventricle of the heart.

celiac artery [UBERON_0001640]

The first major branch of the abdominal aorta. dorsal aorta in Kardong

cell cluster [UBERON_0034922]

A cluster of cells, largely surrounded by a morphological boundary.

cell cluster organ [UBERON_0010001]

A small cluster of cells of various types which form a discrete structure, largely delimited by a morphological boundary and whose components work together to make the whole structure capable of a specific function. Examples include arthropod sensilla.

cell condensation [UBERON_0011585]

Anatomical structure that is an aggregation of similar cells from which cartilages and bones form, and from which chondrogenesis and osteogenesis are initiated during repair and/or regeneration. (Hall and Miyake 1995).

central nervous system [UBERON_0001017]

The central nervous system is the core nervous system that serves an integrating and coordinating function. In vertebrates it consists of the neural tube derivatives: the brain and spinal cord. In invertebrates it includes central ganglia plus nerve cord.

central nervous system cell part cluster [UBERON_0011215]

A multi cell part structure that is part of a central nervous system.

central nervous system gray matter layer [UBERON_0016548]

A layer of of the central nervous system that is part of gray matter.

central tendon of diaphragm [UBERON_0006670]

The three-lobed cloverleaf-shaped aponeurosis situated at the center of the diaphragm; the central tendon is fused with the fibrous pericardium that provides attachment for the muscle fibers.

central vein of liver [UBERON_0006841]

Vein that is central to a lobule in the liver.

cervical artery [UBERON_0012320]

An artery of the neck.

cervical region [UBERON_0005434]

[only in taxon; subdivision of organism along main body axis; Sarcopterygii; neck subdivision; cervical region; is part of; neck]

cervical spinal cord [UBERON_0002726]

A spinal cord segment that adjacent_to a cervical region.

cervical spinal cord gray matter [UBERON_0014613]

A gray matter of spinal cord that is part of a cervical spinal cord.

cervical spinal cord ventral horn [UBERON_0014621]

A ventral horn of spinal cord that is part of a cervical spinal cord.

chamber of eyeball [UBERON_0006311]

A segment of the eyeball that is filled with refractive media.

chemosensory organ [UBERON_0000005]

[chemosensory sensory organ; chemosensory organ; capable of; sensory perception of chemical stimulus; nervous system; is part of; material anatomical entity; chemosensory system; sense organ]

chemosensory system [UBERON_0005726]

[sensory perception of chemical stimulus; chemosensory system; capable of]

choledocho-duodenal junction [UBERON_0015485]

Hat part of the duodenal wall traversed by the ductus choledochus, ductus pancreaticus, and ampulla.

chondrocranium [UBERON_0002241]

Endoskeletal elements that encase the brain, nose, inner ear[cjm]. that part of the neurocranium formed by endochondral ossification and comprising the bones of the base of the skull[TFD].

chordal neural plate [UBERON_0003057]

The portion of neural plate posterior to the mid-hindbrain junction.

chordamesoderm [UBERON_0004880]

The central region of trunk mesoderm. This tissue forms the notochord.

chordate pharynx [UBERON_0001042]

A portion of the respiratory and digestive tracts; its distal limit is the superior part of the esophagus and it connects the nasal and oral cavities with the esophagus and larynx; it contains the valleculae and the pyriform recesses; its upper limits are the nasal cavity and cranial base.[FEED]. Consider generalizing to deuterostome pharynx

chorion membrane [UBERON_0003124]

The outermost extraembryonic membrane of amniotes. This term refers to the amniote structure. It is distinct from the concept of chorion in insects

chorionic ectoderm [UBERON_0003374]

An extraembryonic structure that develops_from a ectoderm and is part of a chorion.

chorionic mesenchyme [UBERON_0003265]

A mesenchyme that is part of a chorion.

chorionic plate [UBERON_0004027]

That portion of the chorionic wall in the region of its uterine attachment, which gives rise to chorionic villi; it consists of the mesoderm that lines the chorionic vesicle and, on the maternal side, of the trophoblast that lines the intervillous spaces; in the last half of gestation, the mesodermal connective tissue is largely replaced by fibrinoid material, and the amnionic membrane is adherent to the fetal side of the plate.

chorionic villus [UBERON_0007106]

One of the minute vascular projections of the fetal chorion that combines with maternal uterine tissue to form the placenta.

chorioretinal region [UBERON_0019207]

The part of the eye that consists of both the retina and the optic choroid.

choroidal blood vessel [UBERON_0002443]

A blood vessel that is part of a choroid [Automatically generated definition]. cannot find singular in FMA, using Set class

ciliary body [UBERON_0001775]

The thickened portion of the vascular tunic, which lies between the choroid and the iris, composed of ciliary muscle and ciliary processes.

ciliary epithelium [UBERON_0001778]

A double layer covering the ciliary body that produces aqueous humor.

ciliary muscle [UBERON_0001605]

The ciliary muscle is a ring of smooth muscle in the middle layer of the eye that controls the eye’s accommodation for viewing objects at varying distances and regulates the flow of aqueous humour through Schlemm’s canal. [WP,unvetted].

ciliary processes [UBERON_0010427]

The ciliary processes are formed by the inward folding of the various layers of the choroid, i.e. , the choroid proper and the lamina basalis, and are received between corresponding foldings of the suspensory ligament of the lens.

ciliated columnar epithelium [UBERON_0007592]

Simple columnar epithelium in which the luminal side of the cells bears cilia. Examples: epithelium of trachea, epithelium of uterine tube.[FMA].

ciliated columnar oviduct epithelium [UBERON_0007589]

A ciliated columnar epithelium that is part of a oviduct.

ciliated epithelium [UBERON_0007601]

Epithelium bearing vibratile cilia on the free surface.

circulatory organ [UBERON_0015228]

A hollow, muscular organ, which, by contracting rhythmically, contributes to the circulation of lymph, blood or analogs. Examples: a chambered vertebrate heart; the tubular peristaltic heart of ascidians; the dorsal vessel of an insect; the lymoh heart of a reptile.

circulatory system [UBERON_0001009]

Organ system that passes nutrients (such as amino acids and electrolytes), gases, hormones, blood cells, etc. to and from cells in the body to help fight diseases and help stabilize body temperature and pH to maintain homeostasis[WP].

cleavage stage [UBERON_0000107]

The first few specialized divisions of an activated animal egg; Stage consisting of division of cells in the early embryo. The zygotes of many species undergo rapid cell cycles with no significant growth, producing a cluster of cells the same size as the original zygote. The different cells derived from cleavage are called blastomeres and form a compact mass called the morula. Cleavage ends with the formation of the blastula.

cleaving embryo [UBERON_0007010]

Organism at the cleavage stage.

cloaca [UBERON_0000162]

Common chamber into which the intestines and excretory system opens. Arises during development in all vertebrates, but in many it becomes subdivided, lost or incorporated into other structures.

cloacal epithelium [UBERON_0012481]

An epithelium that is part of a cloaca.

cloacal gland [UBERON_0012478]

A gland that is part of a cloaca.

cloacal lumen [UBERON_0012463]

An anatomical space that is enclosed by a cloaca.

cloacal mucosa [UBERON_0012480]

A mucosa that is part of a cloaca [Automatically generated definition].

cloacal muscle [UBERON_0014783]

Any muscle organ that is part of a cloaca.

cloacal sphincter [UBERON_0013501]

A sphincter muscle that is part of a cloaca. the muscles of the cloacal sphincter specialise into the perineal muscles in mammals (Gegenbaur, 1883; Popowsky, 1899; Nishi, 1938).

cloacal vent [UBERON_0012464]

The opening of the cloacal chamber to the outside of the organism. Birds maintain a single cloacal opening throughout their lives.

cloacal villus [UBERON_0012485]

[cloacal villus; layer of microvilli; is part of; material anatomical entity; cloacal villi]

coelemic cavity lumen [UBERON_0002323]

The cavity within the body of all animals higher than the coelenterates and certain primitive worms, formed by the splitting of the embryonic mesoderm into two layers. In mammals it forms the peritoneal, pleural, and pericardial cavities.

coelom [UBERON_0011997]

The aggregate of the coelemic cavity lumen plus the membranes that line the lumen.

coelomic fluid [UBERON_0036217]

A bodily fluid that is located in the coelom.

colic artery [UBERON_0035548]

[colic artery; colon; supplies]

collection of collagen fibrils [UBERON_0011860]

[collection of collagen fibrils; collagen trimer; composed_primarily_of; acellular anatomical structure; banded collagen fibril]

colon [UBERON_0001155]

A portion of the large intestine before it becomes the rectum. In mammals, the colon is the most part of the large intestine, excluding the vermiform appendix, the rectum and the anal canal.

colon endothelium [UBERON_0013695]

Vascular endothelium found in colon blood vessels.

colonic epithelium [UBERON_0000397]

An epithelium that is part of a colon [Automatically generated definition].

colonic mucosa [UBERON_0000317]

Mucosa that is part of a colon. The mucosa of the colon is lined by a simple columnar epithelium with a thin brush border and numerous goblet cells.

columnar epithelium [UBERON_0012274]

An epithelium that consists of columnar epithelial cells. Columnar epithelia are epithelial cells whose heights are at least four times their width. Columnar epithelia are divided into simple (or unilayered), and the rarer stratified (or multi-layered).[WP, modified].

common atrial chamber [UBERON_0006218]

[common atrial chamber; cardiac atrium; anatomical entity; embryonic structure; is part of]

common bile duct [UBERON_0001174]

The part of the biliary tree formed by the union of the cystic duct and the common hepatic duct.

common carotid artery plus branches [UBERON_0001530]

A bilaterally paired branched artery that originates from the aortic arches and divides into and includes as parts the internal and external carotid arteries[cjm].

common hepatic artery [UBERON_0005436]

In anatomy, the common hepatic artery is a short blood vessel that supplies oxygenated blood to the liver, pylorus (a part of the stomach), duodenum (a part of the small intestine) and pancreas. It arises from the celiac artery and has the following branches:.

common hepatic duct [UBERON_0001175]

Predominantly extrahepatic bile duct which is formed by the junction of the right and left hepatic ducts, which are predominantly intrahepatic, and, in turn, joins the cystic duct to form the common bile duct[GAID]. The common hepatic duct is the duct formed by the convergence of the right hepatic duct (which drains bile from the right functional lobe of the liver) and the left hepatic duct (which drains bile from the left functional lobe of the liver). The common hepatic duct then joins the cystic duct coming from the gallbladder to form the common bile duct[WP].

communicating artery [UBERON_0006347]

An artery that connects two larger arteries. Grouping for anterior and posterior

compound eye [UBERON_0000018]

A light sensing organ composed of ommatidia.

compound organ [UBERON_0003103]

Anatomical structure that has as its parts two or more multi-tissue structures of at least two different types and which through specific morphogenetic processes forms a single distinct structural unit demarcated by bona fide boundaries from other distinct anatomical structures of different types.

compound organ component [UBERON_0000471]

Multi-tissue structure that is part of a compound organ.

conceptus [UBERON_0004716]

The embryo and its adnexa (appendages or adjunct parts) or associated membranes (i.e. the products of conception) The conceptus includes all structures that develop from the zygote, both embryonic and extraembryonic. It includes the embryo as well as the embryonic part of the placenta and its associated membranes - amnion, chorion (gestational sac), and yolk sac[WP].

conducting system of heart [UBERON_0002350]

The cardiac conduction system consists of specialized cardiomyocytes that regulate the frequency of heart beat[GO].

conducting tissue of heart [UBERON_0010131]

Any portion of cardiac muscle tissue that is part of the conducting system of heart or the Purkinje fibers.

connective tissue [UBERON_0002384]

Tissue with cells that deposit non-polarized extracellular matrix including connective tissue fibers and ground substance.

conus arteriosus [UBERON_0003983]

A conical pouch formed from the upper and left angle of the right ventricle in the chordate heart, from which the pulmonary artery arises[WP]. the anteriosuperior, smooth-walled portion of the cavity of the right ventricle, beginning at the supraventricular crest and terminates in the pulmonary trunk[MP].

cornea [UBERON_0000964]

The transparent anterior portion of the fibrous coat of the eye that serves as the chief refractory structure.

corneal blood vessel [UBERON_0003500]

A blood vessel that is part of a cornea [Automatically generated definition].

corneal endothelium [UBERON_0001985]

A monolayer of specialized, flattened, mitochondria-rich cells that lines the posterior surface of the cornea and faces the anterior chamber of the eye[WP].

corneal epithelium [UBERON_0001772]

The smooth stratified squamous epithelium that covers the outer surface of the cornea.

corneal primordium [UBERON_0005427]

Portion of tissue that is part of the eye and gives rise to the mature, fully layered cornea.

corneal stroma collagen fibril [UBERON_0011865]

The connective tissue bundles in the extracellular matrix of corneal stroma that are composed of collagen, and play a role in tissue strength and elasticity.

corneo-scleral junction [UBERON_0006761]

The edge of the cornea where it joins the sclera; the limbus is a common site for the occurrence of corneal epithelial neoplasm. This location has parts such as blood vessels etc. See PMC2868485, http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/2695343

coronary capillary [UBERON_0006966]

A capillary that is part of the coronary system.

coronary vessel [UBERON_0005985]

Any of the arteries or veins that supply blood to the heart or return blood from the heart muscles to the circulation.

costo-cervical trunk [UBERON_0004688]

The costocervical trunk arises from the upper and back part of the subclavian artery, behind the scalenus anterior on the right side, and medial to that muscle on the left side. Passing backward, it splits into the deep cervical artery and the supreme intercostal artery (or the Highest intercostal artery), which descends behind the pleura in front of the necks of the first and second ribs, and anastomoses with the first aortic intercostal (3rd posterior intercostal artery). As it crosses the neck of the first rib it lies medial to the anterior division of the first thoracic nerve, and lateral to the first thoracic ganglion of the sympathetic trunk. In the first intercostal space, it gives off a branch which is distributed in a manner similar to the distribution of the aortic intercostals. The branch for the second intercostal space usually joins with one from the highest aortic intercostal artery. This branch is not constant, but is more commonly found on the right side; when absent, its place is supplied by an intercostal branch from the aorta. Each intercostal gives off a posterior branch which goes to the posterior vertebral muscles, and sends a small spinal branch through the corresponding intervertebral foramen to the medulla spinalis and its membranes. [WP,unvetted].

cranial blood vasculature [UBERON_0011362]

A blood vasculature that is part of a head.

cranial bone [UBERON_0004766]

A bone that is part of a cranium.

cranial cartilage [UBERON_0003933]

A cartilage element that is part of the cranial skeleton.

cranial cavity [UBERON_0013411]

Anatomical cavity that is the lumen of the skull and contains the brain.

cranial ganglion [UBERON_0001714]

The groups of nerve cell bodies associated with the twelve cranial nerves.

cranial muscle [UBERON_0002376]

Any skeletal muscle that is part of the head region. defined generically so could in theory encompass FBbt:00003260 ‘skeletal muscle of head’, or the muscle of a starfish Aristotle’s lantern, but we restrict this to craniates. Skeletal muscles of the head originate from the non-segmented head mesoderm (Noden, 1983; Wachtler et al., 1984)

cranial nerve [UBERON_0001785]

Cranial nerves are nerves that emerge directly from the brain, in contrast to spinal nerves, which emerge from segments of the spinal cord.

cranial nerve nucleus [UBERON_0000126]

Nucleus that receives projections from or contains neurons that send projections through one of the cranial nerves.

cranial neural crest [UBERON_0003099]

Neural crest cells (NCCs) originating in the anterior part of the developing embryo and residing between the mid-diencephalon and the forming hindbrain; cranial NCCs migrate dorsolaterally to form the craniofacial mesenchyme that differentiates into various craniofacial cartilages and bones, cranial neurons, glia, and connective tissues of the face; these cells enter the pharyngeal pouches and arches where they give rise to thymic cells, bones of the middle ear and jaw (mandible), and the odontoblasts of the tooth primordia; like their counterparts in the trunk, cranial NCCs also contribute to the developing peripheral nervous system, along with the pigmented cell (i.e. melanocyte) lineage.

cranial neuron projection bundle [UBERON_0034713]

Any of the cranial nerves, or their central nervous system analogs (the optic tract, the epiphyseal tract). These analogs are not true nerves, and are instead evaginated sensory afferents emanating from the brain.

cranial placode [UBERON_0002546]

Ectodermal placode that develops in the head into a part of the sensory nervous system. With a few exceptions (lens, adenohypophyseal), cranial placodes are neurogenic.

cranial salt gland [UBERON_0004759]

A salt gland located in the cranium or head region.

cranial skeletal system [UBERON_0010323]

Skeletal subdivision of the head including skull (cranium plus mandible), pharyngeal and/or hyoid apparatus.

craniocervical muscle [UBERON_0010959]

Any muscle organ that is part of either the head or the neck.

craniocervical region [UBERON_0007811]

The anteriormost subdivision of the body that includes the head, jaws, pharyngeal region and the neck (if present). In vertebrates this is the subdivision that includes the cervical vertebrae.

craniocervical region musculature [UBERON_0008229]

Musculature system of the pharyngeal and head regions.

craniocervical region vein [UBERON_0009141]

A vein that is part of a craniocervical region.

cranium [UBERON_0003128]

Upper portion of the skull that excludes the mandible (when present in the organism).

crista terminalis [UBERON_0005979]

The vertical crest of the interior wall of the right atrium that lies to the right of the sinus of the vena cava and separates this from the remainder of the right atrium.

cuboidal epithelium [UBERON_0010077]

An epithelium consisting of cuboidal epithelial cells.

cuboidal oviduct epithelium [UBERON_0007590]

A cuboidal epithelium that is part of a oviduct.

cutaneous elastic tissue [UBERON_0003967]

The slender connective tissue fiber in the extracellular matrix of skin tissue that is composed of microfibrils and amorphous elastin and is characterized by great elasticity.

cystic artery [UBERON_0039222]

An artery that supplies oxygenated blood to the cystic duct.

cystic duct [UBERON_0001152]

The tubular structure that conducts gall bladder contents from the gall bladder to the common bile duct.

death stage [UBERON_0000071]

End of the life of an organism.

deep cervical artery [UBERON_0012321]

The deep cervical artery (Profunda cervicalis) is an artery of the neck.

deep vasculature [UBERON_0035551]

The part of the circulatory system that lies deep beneath the subcutaneous tissue layers away from the surface of the skin.

deep vein [UBERON_0035552]

A blood vessel carrying deoxygenated blood far beneath the skin usually accompanying an artery.

dense connective tissue [UBERON_0011823]

Dense connective tissue is mainly composed of collagen type I. Crowded between the collagen fibers are rows of fibroblasts, fiber-forming cells, that manufacture the fibers. Dense connective tissue forms strong, rope-like structures such as tendons and ligaments. Tendons attach skeletal muscles to bones; ligaments connect bones to bones at joints. Ligaments are more stretchy and contain more elastic fibers than tendons. Dense connective tissue also make up the lower layers of the skin (dermis), where it is arranged in sheets.

dense irregular connective tissue [UBERON_0011822]

Irregular connective tissue is an irregular connective tissue, the intercellular matrix of which contains a dense irregular network of collagen and elastic fiber bundles. Examples: connective tissue of peritoneum, connective tissue of fibrous pericardium.

dense mesenchyme tissue [UBERON_0007524]

Mesenchyme with little extracellular matrix.

dense regular connective tissue [UBERON_0007846]

Connective tissue that is dominated by collagen fibres organized into a definitive pattern (e.g., parallel to one another), with comparatively fewer cells (mostly fibroblasts).

dermal bone [UBERON_0008907]

Skeletal element that forms superficially in the organism, usually in association with the ectoderm[VSAO].

dermal skeletal element [UBERON_0004756]

Dermis-derived entity that is made of skeletal tissue.

dermal skeleton [UBERON_0010364]

Skeletal subdivision that undergoes direct development and includes elements that either develop in association with the basement membrane of the ectoderm or are homologous with such elements; includes dermatocranium, components of the appendicular skeleton, teeth and tooth-like elements of the oropharynx, and integumentary elements. This ontology covers metazoa, so we do not use exoskeleton as primary label, as in VSAO

dermatocranium [UBERON_0003113]

Subdivision of skeleton that includes all dermal bones in the cranial skeleton[ZFA,modified].

dermatome [UBERON_0004016]

A transitional population of migrating mesenchymal cells that derive from somites and that will become dermal cells.

dermis [UBERON_0002067]

The dermis is a layer of skin between the epidermis (with which it makes up the skin) and subcutaneous tissues, and is composed of two layers, the papillary and reticular dermis[WP].

dermis adipose tissue [UBERON_0003426]

An adipose tissue that is part of a dermis [Automatically generated definition].

dermis connective tissue [UBERON_0003585]

A portion of connective tissue that is part of a dermis [Automatically generated definition].

dermomyotome [UBERON_0004290]

The bilaminar epithelium formed from the myotome and dermatome.

Descemet's membrane [UBERON_0004367]

A transparent homogeneous acellular layer found between the substantia propria and the endothelial layer of the cornea[MP]. The strong, resistant, thin, noncellular fourth layer of the cornea, located between the endothelium (from which it is secreted) and the stroma. (Cline et al., Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed)

descending aorta [UBERON_0001514]

The descending aorta is the portion of the aorta in a two-pass circulatory system from the arch of aorta to the point where it divides into the common iliac arteries[GO]. The descending aorta is part of the aorta, the largest artery in the body. The descending aorta is the part of the aorta beginning at the aortic arch that runs down through the chest and abdomen. The descending aorta is divided into two portions, the thoracic and abdominal, in correspondence with the two great cavities of the trunk in which it is situated. Within the abdomen, the descending aorta branches into the two common iliac arteries which serve the legs. [WP,unvetted].

descending thoracic aorta [UBERON_0002345]

The part of the aorta that extends from the arch of the aorta to the diaphragm, and from which arises numerous branches that supply oxygenated blood to the chest cage and the organs within the chest.

developing anatomical structure [UBERON_0005423]

[developing anatomical structure; material anatomical entity; developmental structure; developing structure]

developing mesenchymal condensation [UBERON_0005856]

A delimited region of dense mesenchyme within looser mesenchyme.

developing mesenchymal structure [UBERON_0017650]

A mesenchyme-derived anatomical entity undergoing a transtion to become another structure.

developing neuroepithelium [UBERON_0034705]

An embryonic or larval epithelium that is committed to form part of the nervous system.

diaphragm [UBERON_0001103]

A thin musculomebranous barrier that separates the abdominal and thoracic cavities. Often used for breathing control.

differentiating neuroepithelium [UBERON_0034707]

A neuroepithelium some of whose cells are undergoing terminal differentiation to become neuronal cells.

digestive system [UBERON_0001007]

Anatomical system that has as its parts the organs devoted to the ingestion, digestion, and assimilation of food and the discharge of residual wastes.

digestive system duct [UBERON_0003928]

A duct that is part of a digestive system [Automatically generated definition].

digestive system element [UBERON_0013765]

Any of the organs or elements that are part of the digestive system. Examples: tongue, esophagus, spleen, crop, lunge feeding organ, tooth elements.

digestive system gland [UBERON_0006925]

Any gland that is part of the digestive system.

digestive tract [UBERON_0001555]

A tube extending from the mouth to the anus.

digestive tract diverticulum [UBERON_0009854]

Branch or outpocketing of the digestive tract.

digestive tract epithelium [UBERON_0003929]

An epithelium that lines the lumen of the digestive tract.

digestive tract junction [UBERON_1100000]

An anatomical junction between two parts of the digestive tract.

dilatator pupillae [UBERON_0001608]

A smooth muscle of the eye, running radially in the iris that functions as a dilator. [WP,unvetted].

dorsal aorta [UBERON_0005805]

The dorsal aorta is a blood vessel in a single-pass circulatory system that carries oxygenated blood from the gills to the rest of the body. In a single-pass circulatory system blood passes once through the heart to supply the body once.

dorsal mesentery [UBERON_0002296]

The mesentery that originates from the dorsal side of the peritoneal cavity[ZFA].

dorsal mesogastrium [UBERON_0005602]

The portion of mesentery attached to the greater curvature of the stomach is named the dorsal mesentery (or dorsal mesogastrium, when referring to the portion at the stomach), and the part which suspends the colon is termed the mesocolon. The dorsal mesogastrium develops into the greater omentum.

dorsal pancreas [UBERON_0009708]

[dorsal pancreatic bud; is part of; endoderm-derived structure; develops from; pancreatis dorsalis; pancreas dorsal primordium; exocrine gland; has developmental contribution from; dorsal pancreas; trunk region element]

dorsal pancreatic bud [UBERON_0003923]

Pancreatic bud that gives rise to the accessory pancreatic duct.

dorsal region element [UBERON_0005174]

An organ or element that part of the dorsum of the organism. Examples: spinal cord, vertebrae, muscles of back.

dorsal thoracic segment of trunk [UBERON_0008231]

Subdivision of thorax, which in humans is the posterior part of the thorax and is demarcated from the chest by the external surface of the posterolateral part of the rib cage and the anterior surface of the thoracic vertebral column; together with the chest, it constitutes the thorax.

dorsal trunk [UBERON_0011270]

The part of the trunk that is in the dorsum[cjm].

dorsolateral placode [UBERON_0003067]

Lateral neurogenic placodes positioned dorsal of the epibranchial placodes. The only remaining dorsolateral placode in land vertebrates is the otic/octaval placode

dorsum [UBERON_0001137]

A major subdivision of an organism that is the entire part of the organism dorsal to a horizontal plane and bounded on one side by the same transverse plane. In vertebrares this includes the vertebral column..

duct [UBERON_0000058]

A tubular structure that transports secreted or excreted substances.

duodenal epithelium [UBERON_0008346]

An epithelium that is part of a duodenum.

duodenal gland [UBERON_0001212]

A compound tubular submucosal gland found in that portion of the duodenum which is above the hepatopancreatic sphincter (Sphincter of Oddi). The main function of these glands is to produce a mucus-rich alkaline secretion (containing bicarbonate)[WP].

duodenal mucosa [UBERON_0000320]

A mucosa that is part of a duodenum [Automatically generated definition].

duodenal papilla [UBERON_0004914]

One of the two small elevations on the mucosa of the duodenum, the major at the entrance of the conjoined pancreatic and common bile ducts and the minor at the entrance of the accessory pancreatic duct.

duodenum [UBERON_0002114]

The first part of the small intestine. At the junction of the stomach and the duodenum the alimentary canal is inflected. The duodenum first goes anteriorly for a short distance, turns dorsally, and eventually caudally, thus it is a U-shaped structure with two horizontal sections (a ventral and a dorsal one).

duodenum lamina propria [UBERON_0015834]

A lamina propria that is part of a duodenum.

early pharyngeal endoderm [UBERON_0007690]

. relation conflict: ZFA vs EHDAA2. Note EHDAA2 term renamed to ‘early PA endoderm’

ecto-epithelium [UBERON_0010371]

Epithelium composed of cells that develops from the ectoderm[FMA,modified].

ectoderm [UBERON_0000924]

Primary germ layer that is the outer of the embryo’s three germ layers and gives rise to epidermis and neural tissue.

ectoderm of buccopharyngeal membrane [UBERON_0009479]

An ectoderm that is part of a buccopharyngeal membrane.

ectoderm-derived structure [UBERON_0004121]

An anatomical structure that develops (entirely or partially) from the ectoderm.

ectodermal part of digestive tract [UBERON_0004906]

A portion of the gut that is derived from ectoderm.

ectodermal placode [UBERON_0005085]

An ectodermal placode is a thickening of the ectoderm that is the primordium of many structures derived from the ectoderm[GO].

elastic tissue [UBERON_0002521]

Connective tissue composed of elastic fibers.

embryo [UBERON_0000922]

Anatomical entity that comprises the organism in the early stages of growth and differentiation that are characterized by cleavage, the laying down of fundamental tissues, and the formation of primitive organs and organ systems. For example, for mammals, the process would begin with zygote formation and end with birth. For insects, the process would begin at zygote formation and end with larval hatching. For plant zygotic embryos, this would be from zygote formation to the end of seed dormancy. For plant vegetative embryos, this would be from the initial determination of the cell or group of cells to form an embryo until the point when the embryo becomes independent of the parent plant.

embryo stage [UBERON_0000068]

A life cycle stage that starts with fertilization and ends with the fully formed embryo.

embryonic cardiovascular system [UBERON_0011695]

A cardiovascular system that is part of a conceptus.

embryonic cloaca [UBERON_0000163]

Endoderm-lined chamber that develops as pouch-like dilation of the caudal end of the hindgut and receives the allantois ventrally and two mesonephric ducts laterally; caudally it ends blindly at the cloacal membrane formed by the union of proctodeal (anal pit) ectoderm and cloacal endoderm, with no intervening mesoderm[MP].

embryonic cloacal epithelium [UBERON_0009846]

An epithelium that is part of a embryonic cloaca.

embryonic cloacal lumen [UBERON_0009669]

An anatomical space that surrounded_by a embryonic cloaca.

embryonic facial prominence [UBERON_0012314]

One of five swellings formed during the development of the face.

embryonic head [UBERON_0008816]

A head that is part of a embryo.

embryonic skin basal layer [UBERON_0011272]

[external ectoderm; basal cell layer of skin; embryonic skin basal layer; develops from; unilaminar epithelium; integument; ecto-epithelium; is part of]

embryonic structure [UBERON_0002050]

Anatomical structure that is part of an embryo.

embryonic tagma [UBERON_6000137]

Any tagma (UBERON:6000002) that is part of some embryo (UBERON:6000052).

embryonic tissue [UBERON_0005291]

A portion of tissue that is part of an embryo.

embryonic uterus [UBERON_0005795]

[fetal uterus; has potential to develop into; presumptive structure; embryonic uterus]

embryonic-extraembryonic boundary [UBERON_0004015]

The connection between the embryo proper and extraembryonic tissues.

enclosed anatomical space [UBERON_0012467]

An anatomical space with no opening to another space or to the exterior.

endo-epithelium [UBERON_0005911]

Epithelium that derives from the endoderm. Examples: urothelium, transitional epithelium of ureter, epithelium of prostatic gland.[FMA].

endocardial cushion [UBERON_0002062]

The endocardial cushion is a specialized region of mesenchymal cells that will give rise to the heart septa and valves[GO]. Swellings of tissue present between the endocardial and myocardial cell layers that will give rise to the interstitial cells of the cardiac valves[ZFA]. GO graph seems to suggest this is an endothelium. WP: The endocardial cushions are thought to arise from a subset of endothelial cells that undergo epithelial to mesenchymal transformation, a process whereby these cells break cell-to-cell contacts and migrate into the cardiac jelly (towards to interior of the heart tube). Latest (2010-06-01) new def suggested for GO, added above. Note that EHDAA2 has a more detailed model which we may later adopt. JB: Patterning makes the cushions lay down connective tissue in three domains that force out the local endothelial lining and so the leaflets form

endocardial endothelium [UBERON_0005316]

The endothelial lining of the endocardium.

endocardium [UBERON_0002165]

The endocardium is an anatomical structure comprised of an endothelium and an extracellular matrix that forms the innermost layer of tissue of the heart, and lines the heart chambers[GO]. fixed in GO to reflect FMA. See email to David/Varsha June 18 2010

endocardium of atrium [UBERON_0002166]

Endocardium that is part of the atrium.

endocardium of left ventricle [UBERON_0009713]

Any endocardium that is part of the left ventricle of the heart.

endocardium of right ventricle [UBERON_0009712]

Any endocardium that is part of the right ventricle of the heart.

endocardium of ventricle [UBERON_0001081]

Endocardium that is part of the cardiac ventricle.

endochondral bone [UBERON_0002513]

Replacement bone that forms within cartilage.

endochondral element [UBERON_0010363]

A skeletal element that has the potential to participate in endochondral ossification, and may participate in intramembranous ossification.

endocrine gland [UBERON_0002368]

Endocrine glands are glands of the endocrine system that secrete their products directly into the circulatory system rather than through a duct.[WP, modified].

endocrine pancreas [UBERON_0000016]

The part of the pancreas that is part of the endocrine system and is made up of islet cells, which produce insulin, glucagon and somatostatin.

endocrine system [UBERON_0000949]

Anatomical system that consists of the glands and parts of glands that produce endocrine secretions and help to integrate and control bodily metabolic activity.

endoderm [UBERON_0000925]

Primary germ layer that lies remote from the surface of the embryo and gives rise to internal tissues such as gut.

endoderm of buccopharyngeal membrane [UBERON_0009480]

An endoderm that is part of a buccopharyngeal membrane.

endoderm of foregut [UBERON_0003258]

An endoderm that is part of a foregut [Automatically generated definition].

endoderm of foregut-midgut junction [UBERON_0009550]

An endoderm that is part of a foregut-midgut junction.

endoderm of hindgut [UBERON_0003260]

An endoderm that is part of a hindgut [Automatically generated definition].

endoderm of midgut [UBERON_0003259]

An endoderm that is part of a midgut [Automatically generated definition].

endoderm-derived structure [UBERON_0004119]

An anatomical structure that develops (entirely or partially) from the endoderm.

endodermal part of digestive tract [UBERON_0004185]

A portions of the gut that is derived from endoderm.

endometrial blood vessel [UBERON_0015172]

A blood vessel that is part of a endometrium.

endometrial gland [UBERON_0002451]

The mucous secreting gland associated with the mucuous membrane lining the uterus.

endometrial stroma [UBERON_0002337]

The layer of connective tissue comprised of the endometrial lining of the uterus which fluctuates in thickness throughout the menstrual cycle.

endometrium [UBERON_0001295]

The glandular mucous membrane lining of the uterine cavity that is hormonally responsive during the estrous/menstrual cycle and during pregnancy.

endometrium epithelium [UBERON_0004811]

An epithelium that is part of an endometrium [Automatically generated definition].

endometrium glandular epithelium [UBERON_0012276]

[uterine glands set; is part of; ciliated columnar oviduct epithelium; endometrium glandular epithelium; glandular columnar epithelium; endometrium epithelium]

endoskeleton [UBERON_0010362]

Skeletal subdivision that undergoes indirect development and includes elements that develop as a replacement or substitution of other elements or tissues.

endothelial tube [UBERON_0003915]

Any endothelium that has the quality of being cylindrical [Automatically generated definition].

endothelium [UBERON_0001986]

A layer of epithelium that lines the heart, blood vessels (endothelium, vascular), lymph vessels (endothelium, lymphatic), and the serous cavities of the body[MESH]. Simple squamous epithelium which lines blood and lymphatic vessels and the heart[FMA]. The term ‘endothelium’ has been either restricted to the continuous cell layer of the vertebrates, as we are assuming here, or applied to all the cells able to adhere to the luminal surface of the vascular basement membrane (Casley-Smith 1980)

endothelium of arteriole [UBERON_0001916]

An endothelium that is part of an arteriole [Automatically generated definition].

endothelium of artery [UBERON_0001917]

An endothelium that is part of an artery [Automatically generated definition].

endothelium of capillary [UBERON_0001915]

An endothelium that is part of a capillary [Automatically generated definition].

endothelium of trachea [UBERON_0003279]

An endothelium that is part of a trachea.

endothelium of vein [UBERON_0001919]

An endothelium that is part of a vein [Automatically generated definition].

endothelium of venule [UBERON_0001918]

An endothelium that is part of a venule [Automatically generated definition].

entire embryonic mesenchyme [UBERON_0009142]

Sum total of mesenchyme in the embryo.

entire extraembryonic component [UBERON_0016887]

The part of the conceptus that may be lost before birth or will be discarded at birth, or when the embryo becomes an independent organism.

entire pharyngeal arch associated mesenchyme [UBERON_0010046]

The sum total of mesenchymal tissue in the pharyngeal arch region. Pharyngeal mesenchyme is undifferentiated, loose connective tissue derived mostly from mesoderm, and also contains ectodermally derived neural crest cells.

entire pharyngeal arch endoderm [UBERON_0009722]

[pharyngeal arch system; embryonic tissue; digestive tract epithelium; is part of; entire pharyngeal arch endoderm; foregut epithelium; endo-epithelium]

entire sense organ system [UBERON_0004456]

Sum of all sensory systems in an organism.

entire surface of organism [UBERON_0035159]

Anatomical surface, which is the external surface of the whole body. Examples: There is only one body surface.

enveloping layer of ectoderm [UBERON_0007383]

Outermost layer of cells surrounding the embryo.

epiblast (generic) [UBERON_0002532]

In amniote animal embryology, the epiblast is a tissue type derived either from the inner cell mass in mammals or the blastodisc in birds and reptiles. It lies above the hypoblast. In mammalian embryogenesis, the columnar cells of the epiblast are adjacent to the trophoblast, while the cuboidal cells of the hypoblast are closer to the blastocoele. The epiblast, whilst referred to as the primary ectoderm, differentiates to form all three layers of the trilaminar germ disc in a process called gastrulation[WP]. The outer of the two layers of the blastoderm that form during gastrulation, corresponding to primitive ectoderm during gastrulation and to the definitive ectoderm after gastrulation[ZFA]

epibranchial ganglion [UBERON_0009127]

Cranial ganglion which develops from an epibranchial placode. Epibranchial ganglia orchestrate the development of the cranial neurogenic crest

epibranchial placode [UBERON_0003078]

Focal thickenings of the embryonic ectoderm that form immediately dorsal and caudal of the clefts between the pharyngeal arches and that produce the neuroblasts that migrate and condense to form the distal cranial ganglia.

epicardial fat [UBERON_0015129]

Visceral intrapericardial fat contiguous with the myocardial surface.

epicardium [UBERON_0002348]

A region of the serous membrane that forms the innermost layer of the pericardium and the outer surface of the heart.

epicardium of ventricle [UBERON_0001082]

An epicardial layer that lines a cardiac ventricle.

epidermis gland [UBERON_0007771]

A gland that is part of a epidermis.

epimysium [UBERON_0011899]

Epimysium is a layer of connective tissue which ensheaths the entire muscle. It is composed of dense irregular connective tissue. It is continuous with fascia and other connective tissue wrappings of muscle including the endomysium, and perimysium. It is also continuous with tendons where it becomes thicker and collagenous.

epithelial bud [UBERON_0005153]

A bud is a protrusion that forms from an epithelial sheet by localized folding.

epithelial fold [UBERON_0005157]

An epithelial sheet bent on a linear axis.

epithelial layer of duct [UBERON_0034969]

[ductal epithelium; duct epithelium; epithelial tube; epithelial layer of duct; is part of]

epithelial sac [UBERON_0007499]

An epithelial tube that is open at one end only.

epithelial sheet [UBERON_0010136]

An epithelial sheet is a flat surface consisting of closely packed epithelial cells.

epithelial tube [UBERON_0003914]

Epithelial tubes transport gases, liquids and cells from one site to another and form the basic structure of many organs and tissues, with tube shape and organization varying from the single-celled excretory organ in Caenorhabditis elegans to the branching trees of the mammalian kidney and insect tracheal system.

epithelial tube open at both ends [UBERON_0007500]

An epithelial tube open at both ends that allows fluid flow.

epithelial vesicle [UBERON_0007503]

A closed epithelium with a lumen.

epithelium [UBERON_0000483]

Portion of tissue, that consists of one or more layers of epithelial cells connected to each other by cell junctions and which is underlain by a basal lamina. Examples: simple squamous epithelium, glandular cuboidal epithelium, transitional epithelium, myoepithelium[CARO]. Editor note: surface epithelium may contain non-epithelial cells, such as melanocytes, lymphocytes and dendritic cells, within the sheet of epithelial cells. Do we consider these part of the epithelium, or located-in it?

epithelium of biliary system [UBERON_0034932]

The epithelial layer covering the biliary system. This includes the epithelium of the gallbladder (when present) as well as the intrahepatic and extrahepatic bile ducts.

epithelium of bronchiole [UBERON_0002051]

An epithelium that is part of a bronchiole [Automatically generated definition].

epithelium of bronchus [UBERON_0002031]

An epithelium that is part of a bronchus [Automatically generated definition].

epithelium of esophagus [UBERON_0001976]

The epithelial layer that lines the luminal space of the esophagus.

epithelium of female gonad [UBERON_0004911]

An epithelium surrounding an ovary.

epithelium of foregut-midgut junction [UBERON_0009497]

An epithelium that is part of a foregut-midgut junction.

epithelium of gall bladder [UBERON_0002029]

The simple columnar epithelial lining of the gall bladder.

epithelium of gonad [UBERON_0004909]

An epithelium surrounding a gonad.

epithelium of hindgut [UBERON_0003353]

An epithelium that is part of a hindgut [Automatically generated definition].

epithelium of intestinal villus [UBERON_0013636]

An epithelium that is part of a intestinal villus.

epithelium of large intestine [UBERON_0001278]

An epithelium that is part of a large intestine [Automatically generated definition].

epithelium of left lung [UBERON_0003365]

An epithelium that is part of a left lung [Automatically generated definition].

epithelium of lens [UBERON_0001803]

A layer of epithelial cells that is part of the eye.

epithelium of lower jaw [UBERON_0003236]

An epithelium that is part of a lower jaw [Automatically generated definition].

epithelium of midgut [UBERON_0003352]

An epithelium that is part of a midgut.

epithelium of mucosa [UBERON_0003350]

A layer of epithelial cells on the surface of the mucosa. lies on top of lamina propria

epithelium of pancreatic duct [UBERON_0009970]

An epithelium that is part of a pancreatic duct.

epithelium of rectum [UBERON_0003354]

An epithelium that is part of a rectum [Automatically generated definition].

epithelium of right lung [UBERON_0003364]

An epithelium that is part of a right lung [Automatically generated definition].

epithelium of small intestine [UBERON_0001902]

An epithelium that is part of a small intestine [Automatically generated definition].

epithelium of stomach [UBERON_0001276]

The epithelial layer of the stomach .

epithelium of terminal part of digestive tract [UBERON_0016885]

Epithelium lining the distalmost portion of the digestive tract.

epithelium of trachea [UBERON_0001901]

The epithelial lining of the trachea which contains numerous ciliated cells.

esophageal artery [UBERON_0035539]

Any of several arteries that arise from the aorta and supply blood to the esophagus.

esophageal hiatus [UBERON_0016458]

A hole in the diaphragm through which the esophagus passes.

esophageal sphincter [UBERON_0007652]

A sphincter that is part of an esophagus.

esophagus [UBERON_0001043]

Tube that connects the pharynx to the stomach. In mammals, the oesophagus connects the buccal cavity with the stomach. The stratified squamous non-keratinised epithelium lining the buccal cavity is continued through the pharynx down into the oesophagus. The lowest part of the oesophagus (ca. 2 cm) is lined with gastric mucosa and covered by peritoneum. The main body of the oesophagus is lined with small, simple mucous glands. Each gland opens into the lumen by a long duct which pierces the muscularis mucosae (Wilson and Washington, 1989). A sphincter is situated at the point where the oesophagus enters the stomach to prevent gastro-oesophageal reflux, i.e. to prevent acidic gastric contents from reaching stratified epithelia of the oesophagus, where they can cause inflammation and irritation (Wilson and Washington, 1989; Brown et al., 1993).

esophagus mucosa [UBERON_0002469]

A mucosa that is part of a esophagus [Automatically generated definition].

esophagus muscle [UBERON_0003832]

Any muscle organ that is part of a esophagus [Automatically generated definition].

esophagus secretion [UBERON_0004794]

A secretion that is part of a esophagus [Automatically generated definition].

esophagus skeletal muscle [UBERON_0004831]

A portion of skeletal muscle tissue that is part of a esophagus [Automatically generated definition]. Most muscle tissue lining the digestive tract is smooth, but part of the externa of the esophagus is skeletal

esophagus squamous epithelium [UBERON_0006920]

A squamous epithelium that is part of a esophagus.

excreta [UBERON_0000174]

A portion of organism substance that is the product of an excretion process that will be eliminated from the body. An excretion process is elimination by an organism of the waste products that arise as a result of metabolic activity.

excreted gas [UBERON_0034945]

Any gaseous product of an excretory process.

excretory duct [UBERON_0035050]

[excretory duct]

excretory tube [UBERON_0006555]

A tube that is part of a excretory system.

exocrine gland [UBERON_0002365]

A gland that secretes products (excluding hormones and other chemical messengers) into ducts (duct glands) which lead directly into the external environment[WP]. Typical exocrine glands include sweat glands, salivary glands, mammary glands, stomach, liver, pancreas.

exocrine gland of integumental system [UBERON_0019319]

An exocrine gland that is part of a integumental system.

exocrine pancreas [UBERON_0000017]

The part of the pancreas that is part of the exocrine system and which produces and store zymogens of digestive enzymes, such as chymotrypsinogen and trypsinogen in the acinar cells [GO].

exocrine pancreas epithelium [UBERON_0013697]

Epithelium lining the exocrine pancreas.

exocrine system [UBERON_0002330]

Anatomical system that consists of the glands and parts of glands that produce exocrine secretions and help to integrate and control bodily metabolic activity. Exocrine glands are glands that secrete their products (hormones) into ducts (duct glands). They are the counterparts to endocrine glands, which secrete their products (hormones) directly into the bloodstream (ductless glands) or release hormones (paracrines) that affect only target cells nearby the release site. [Wikipedia].

external anal region [UBERON_0012469]

[external anal region; is part of; multi-tissue structure]

external carotid artery [UBERON_0001070]

A terminal branch of the left or right common carotid artery which supplies oxygenated blood to to the throat, neck glands, tongue, face, mouth, ear, scalp and dura mater of the meninges[MP].

external ectoderm [UBERON_0000076]

The surface (external) layer of ectoderm which begins to proliferate shortly after separation from the neuroectoderm.

external female genitalia [UBERON_0005056]

An external genitalia that is part of a female reproductive system [Automatically generated definition]. TODO: Relabel. Make distinct organ class. See https://github.com/obophenotype/uberon/issues/547

external genitalia [UBERON_0004176]

The external genitalia are the outer sex organs, such as the penis or vulva in mammals. TODO: make a subdivision of reproductive system. Relabel. See https://github.com/obophenotype/uberon/issues/547

external integument structure [UBERON_3000961]

Structures of the dermis, epidermis, glands and pigment cells recognizable on the external surfaces of the integument. Not clear how this differs from parent class. See https://github.com/obophenotype/uberon/issues/1305

external soft tissue zone [UBERON_0034929]

A region or zone on the surface of an organism that encompasses skin and any adnexa, down through muscles and bounded by underlying skeletal support structures.

extraembryonic cavity [UBERON_0012466]

[entire extraembryonic component; extraembryonic cavity; extraembryonic cavities; anatomical entity; is part of; anatomical space]

extraembryonic epithelium [UBERON_0010303]

An epithelium that is part of a extraembryonic structure.

extraembryonic membrane [UBERON_0005631]

Intrinsic membrane that arises from embryonic germ layers and grow to surround the developing embryo.

extraembryonic membrane mesenchyme [UBERON_0010333]

Mesenchyme that is part of a extraembryonic membrane.

extraembryonic mesoderm [UBERON_0005728]

.

extraembryonic structure [UBERON_0000478]

A multicellular anatomical structure that is associated with an embryo and derived from the zygote from which it develops, but which does not contribute to the embryo proper or to structures that are part of the same organism after embryogenesis. see also conceptus extraembryonic component in EHDAA2.

extraembryonic tissue [UBERON_0005292]

Portion of tissue that is contiguous with the embryo and is comprised of portions of tissue or cells that will not contribute to the embryo.

extrahepatic bile duct [UBERON_0003703]

Passages external to the liver for the conveyance of bile. These include the common bile duct and the common hepatic duct.

extrahepatic bile duct epithelium [UBERON_0004822]

An epithelium that is part of a extrahepatic bile duct [Automatically generated definition].

extrahepatic part of hepatic duct [UBERON_0005604]

[is part of; hepatic duct extrahepatic part; bile duct; extrahepatic part of hepatic duct; extrahepatic bile duct]

eye [UBERON_0000970]

An organ that detects light.

eye epithelium [UBERON_0015808]

An epithelium that is part of a camera-type eye.

eye gland [UBERON_0004859]

A gland that is part of a eye. The eye is a compound unit which depending on the species may consist of an eyeballs plus associated ducts and integumentary structures. Eye glands therefore include the various types of lacrimal gland, the various types of apocrine and sebaceous glands associated with the eyelid. Examples: harderian gland, accessory lacrimal gland, gland of Moll, gland of Zeis, nictitating membrane glands

eye mesenchyme [UBERON_0003314]

Mesenchyme that is part of a developing camera-type eye.

eye muscle [UBERON_0004277]

A muscle that is part of the eye region.

eye primordium [UBERON_0003071]

Portion of tissue that is part of the anterior neural keel and will form the optic vesicle[ZFA]. A paired ectodermal placode that becomes invaginated to form the embryonic lens vesicles.

eye skin gland [UBERON_0003605]

A skin gland that is part of a camera-type eye [Automatically generated definition].

eyeball of camera-type eye [UBERON_0010230]

The core globe-shaped component of the camera-type eye.

face [UBERON_0001456]

A subdivision of the head that has as parts the layers deep to the surface of the anterior surface, including the mouth, eyes, and nose (when present). In vertebrates, this includes the facial skeleton and structures superficial to the facial skeleton (cheeks, mouth, eyeballs, skin of face, etc).

facial artery [UBERON_0001612]

A branch of the external carotid artery that supplies structures of the face. [WP,unvetted].

facial bone [UBERON_0003462]

A bone that is part of a facial skeleton [Automatically generated definition].

facial mesenchyme [UBERON_0009891]

Mesenchyme that is part of a developing face.

facial skeleton [UBERON_0011156]

Subdivision of skull that consists of the facial bones.

facial vein [UBERON_0001653]

The anterior facial vein (facial vein) commences at the side of the root of the nose, and is a direct continuation of the angular vein where it also receives a small nasal branch. It lies behind the facial artery and follows a less tortuous course. It receives blood from the external palatine vein before it either joins the anterior branch of the retromandibular vein to form the common facial vein, or drains directly into the internal jugular vein. [WP,unvetted].

fallopian tube [UBERON_0003889]

Initial section of the oviduct through which the ova pass from the ovary to the uterus.

feces [UBERON_0001988]

Portion of semisolid bodily waste discharged through the anus[MW,modified].

female anatomical structure [UBERON_0014404]

A part of the body present only in females.

female organism [UBERON_0003100]

Gonochoristic organism that can produce female gametes.

female reproductive gland [UBERON_0005398]

A sex gland that is part of a female reproductive system.

female reproductive gland secretion [UBERON_0006537]

A portion of organism substance that is secreted by a female reproductive gland.

female reproductive organ [UBERON_0003134]

A female organ involved in reproduction.

female reproductive system [UBERON_0000474]

The organs and associated structures associated with bearing offspring in a female animal.

fenestrated capillary [UBERON_2005260]

Capillary that has pores in the endothelial cells (60-80 nm in diameter) that are spanned by a diaphragm of radially oriented fibrils and allow small molecules and limited amounts of protein to diffuse.

fibrocollagenous connective tissue [UBERON_0018135]

[fibrous connective tissue; has quality; fibrocollagenous connective tissue]

fibroelastic connective tissue [UBERON_0036186]

[fibrous connective tissue; elastic tissue; elastic fiber; fibroelastic connective tissue; composed_primarily_of]

fibrous connective tissue [UBERON_0011824]

[fibrous connective tissue; dense irregular connective tissue]

fibrous membrane of synovial tendon sheath [UBERON_0011234]

[fibrous membrane of synovial tendon sheath; fibrous connective tissue; organ component layer; bounding layer of; composed_primarily_of]

fibrous pericardium [UBERON_0002359]

Membrane organ which is attached to the pericardial sac proper and the central tendon of diaphragm and is continuous with the pretracheal fascia.[FMA].

flat bone [UBERON_0010428]

A bone that is shaped as a broad flat plate and composed of two thin layers of compact tissue enclosing between them a variable quantity of cancellous tissue, which is the location of red bone marrow. Examples: cranium, the ilium, sternum, rib cage, the sacrum and the scapula; the occipital, parietal, frontal, nasal, lacrimal, vomer, scapula, os coxC&, sternum, and ribs

food storage organ [UBERON_0010039]

An organ of the digestive tract that is capable of retaining and storing food.

foramen magnum [UBERON_0003687]

In anatomy, in the occipital bone, the foramen magnum is one of the several oval or circular apertures in the base of the skull, through which the medulla oblongata (an extension of the spinal cord) enters and exits the skull vault. Apart from the transmission of the medulla oblongata and its membranes, the foramen magnum transmits the Spinal Accessory nerve, vertebral arteries, the anterior and posterior spinal arteries, the membrana tectoria and alar ligaments. [WP,unvetted]. Design pattern notes: check whether this fits the foramen design pattern

foramen of skull [UBERON_0013685]

Anatomical space that is an opening in a bone of the skull.

foregut [UBERON_0001041]

Anterior subdivision of a digestive tract.

foregut duodenum mesentery [UBERON_0005711]

A mesentery of duodenum that is part of a foregut.

foregut epithelium [UBERON_0015833]

An epithelium that is part of a foregut.

foregut-midgut junction [UBERON_0006235]

An anatomical junctions that overlaps the foregut and midgut.

foregut-midgut junction gland [UBERON_0013158]

A gland that is part of a foregut-midgut junction.

fully formed stage [UBERON_0000066]

The stage of development at which the animal is fully formed, including immaturity and maturity. Includes both sexually immature stage, and adult stage.

future brain [UBERON_0006238]

The embryonic precursor of the brain.

future cardiac atrium [UBERON_0010227]

Multi-tissue structure that is part of the heart tube and will become the cardiac atrium.

future cardiac ventricle [UBERON_0006283]

Multi-tissue structure that is part of the heart tube and will become the cardiac ventricle. The embryonic ventricle or primitive ventricle of the developing heart gives rise to the trabeculated parts of the left and right ventricles. In contrast, the smooth parts of the left and right ventricles originate from the embryological bulbus cordis. The primitive ventricle becomes divided by a septum, the septum inferius or ventricular septum, which grows upward from the lower part of the ventricle, its position being indicated on the surface of the heart by a furrow. Its dorsal part increases more rapidly than its ventral portion, and fuses with the dorsal part of the septum intermedium. For a time an interventricular foramen exists above its ventral portion, but this foramen is ultimately closed by the fusion of the aortic septum with the ventricular septum[WP]

future central nervous system [UBERON_0016879]

Primordium that develops into the central nervous system

future central tendon [UBERON_0006239]

A tendon that has the potential to develop into a central tendon.

future coelemic cavity lumen [UBERON_0003886]

An anatomical cavity that has the potential to develop into a coelemic cavity lumen.

future common hepatic duct [UBERON_0010081]

An extrahepatic bile duct that has the potential to develop into a common hepatic duct.

future dermis [UBERON_0010083]

Mesenchyme that has the potential to develop into a dermis.

future diaphragm [UBERON_0010084]

A structure that will develop into a diaphragm.

future lower lip [UBERON_0011596]

[mandibular prominence; lower jaw future lip; develops from; unilaminar epithelium; future lower lip; epithelium of lower jaw]

future metencephalon [UBERON_0010092]

A developing anatomical structure that has the potential to develop into a metencephalon.

future mouth [UBERON_0035804]

The primordial mouth region of the developing head.

future myelencephalon [UBERON_0010096]

A developing anatomical structure that has the potential to develop into a myelencephalon.

future nervous system [UBERON_0016880]

Primordium that develops into the nervous system

future spinal cord [UBERON_0006241]

[presumptive spinal cord neural keel; presumptive structure; central nervous system; is part of; neural tube; future spinal cord; has potential to develop into]

future superior salivatory nucleus [UBERON_0010125]

A gray matter that has the potential to develop into a superior salivatory nucleus.

future trigeminal ganglion [UBERON_0006304]

See: https://github.com/obophenotype/mouse-anatomy-ontology/issues/13 and https://github.com/obophenotype/uberon/issues/693 – consider merging into trigeminal ganglion, as this complicates the model [trigeminal placode complex; develops from; trigeminal neural crest; transformation of; trigeminal preganglion; presumptive ganglion; future trigeminal ganglion; has potential to develop into]

gall bladder [UBERON_0002110]

An organ that aids digestion and stores bile produced by the liver[WP]. Rats do not have a gallbladder, but produce bile. The bile flows directly from the liver through the (hepatic) bile duct into the small intestine (Hebel and Stromberg, 1988)

gall bladder lamina propria [UBERON_0004781]

A lamina propria that is part of a gallbladder [Automatically generated definition].

gall bladder primordium [UBERON_0006242]

A sac-like cavity ventral to the liver, lying in the sub-mesodermal space and closed by a thin sheet of ectodermal cells, from which the future gall bladder develops.

gall bladder serosa [UBERON_0004783]

A serous membrane that is part of a gallbladder [Automatically generated definition].

gall bladder smooth muscle [UBERON_0004240]

A portion of smooth muscle tissue that is part of a gallbladder [Automatically generated definition].

ganglion [UBERON_0000045]

A biological tissue mass, most commonly a mass of nerve cell bodies.

ganglion of central nervous system [UBERON_0003339]

A ganglion that is part of a central nervous system [Automatically generated definition].

ganglion of peripheral nervous system [UBERON_0003338]

A spatially aggregated collection of nerve cell bodies in the PNS, consisting of one or more subpopulations that share cell type, chemical phenotype, and connections. (CUMBO).

gas excreted from digestive tract [UBERON_0034946]

Any excreted gas that is produced by the digestive tract. In mammals, mostly produced as a byproduct of bacterial fermentation in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract, especially the colon, and excreted through the rectum

gas in respiratory system [UBERON_0034947]

Any portion of gas located in a part of the respiratory system.

gastric gland [UBERON_0000325]

The branched tubular glands found in the mucosa of the fundus and body of the stomach which contain parietal cells that secrete hydrochloric acid and zymogenic cells that produce pepsin.

gastric juice [UBERON_0001971]

.

gastroduodenal junction [UBERON_0012650]

An anatomical junction that connects a stomach and connects a duodenum.

gastrointestinal sphincter [UBERON_0011185]

A sphincter muscle that is part of the gastrointestinal system.

gastrointestinal system epithelium [UBERON_0004808]

An epithelium that is part of a digestive system [Automatically generated definition].

gastrointestinal system lamina propria [UBERON_0004780]

A lamina propria that is part of a gastrointestinal system.

gastrointestinal system mesentery [UBERON_0004854]

A mesentery that is part of a digestive system [Automatically generated definition].

gastrointestinal system mucosa [UBERON_0004786]

A mucosa that is part of a gastrointestinal system. The gut mucosa of amphioxus has insulin-secreting cells. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16417468

gastrointestinal system serosa [UBERON_0004782]

A serous membrane that is part of a digestive system [Automatically generated definition].

gastrointestinal system smooth muscle [UBERON_0004226]

A portion of smooth muscle tissue that is part of a digestive system [Automatically generated definition].

gastrula [UBERON_0004734]

Organism at the gastrula stage.

gastrula stage [UBERON_0000109]

A stage defined by complex and coordinated series of cellular movements that occurs at the end of cleavage during embryonic development of most animals. The details of gastrulation vary from species to species, but usually result in the formation of the three primary germ layers, ectoderm, mesoderm and endoderm.

genital artery [UBERON_0010192]

One of the laterally paired arteries that supply the gonads.

genital system [UBERON_3011048]

Anatomical system that has as its parts the organs concerned with reproduction, especially the external genital organs.

genitourinary system [UBERON_0004122]

Anatomical system that has as its parts the organs concerned with the production and excretion of urine and those concerned with reproduction.

germ layer [UBERON_0000923]

A layer of cells produced during the process of gastrulation during the early development of the animal embryo, which is distinct from other such layers of cells, as an early step of cell differentiation. The three types of germ layers are the endoderm, ectoderm, and mesoderm. Classically the germ layers are ectoderm, mesoderm and endoderm. Alternatively: primary = ectoderm, endoderm; secondary=mesoderm; tertiary=dorsal mesoderm, NC[https://github.com/obophenotype/uberon/wiki/The-neural-crest]

germ layer / neural crest [UBERON_0010316]

[epiblast (generic); germ layer / neural crest; embryonic tissue; embryonic structure; develops from; anatomical entity]

germinal neuroepithelium [UBERON_0004022]

The single layer of epithelial cells that lines the early neural tube and develops into the nervous system and into the neural crest cells.

girdle bone/zone [UBERON_0007828]

A bone that is part of a appendage girdle region.

girdle skeleton [UBERON_0010719]

The subdivision of the skeleton of either the pectoral or pelvic girdle.

gland [UBERON_0002530]

An organ that functions as a secretory or excretory organ.

gland lumen [UBERON_0034905]

[luminal space of; gland lumen; immaterial entity; anatomical space; lumen of gland]

gland of anal canal [UBERON_0004760]

A gland that is part of an anal canal [Automatically generated definition].

gland of digestive tract [UBERON_0003408]

A gland that is part of a digestive tract [Automatically generated definition].

gland of foregut [UBERON_0003294]

A gland that is part of a foregut [Automatically generated definition].

gland of integumental system [UBERON_0003297]

A gland that is part of a integumental system [Automatically generated definition].

gland of ocular region [UBERON_0015152]

A gland that is typically found in or near the orbital region, in or around either the medial or lateral canthi, and is typically associated with secretions onto the eyeball or associated ducts. Includes the Harderian, nictitans and lacrimal glands.

glandular acinus [UBERON_0009842]

The many-lobed berry cluster of cells that is the terminous of a gland where the secretion is produced is acinar in form.

glandular columnar epithelium [UBERON_0006929]

Simple columnar epithelium that constitutes the secretory part of a gland. Examples: epithelium of stomach, luminal epithelium of lactiferous duct.[FMA].

glandular cuboidal epithelium [UBERON_0006930]

[glandular epithelial cell; glandular epithelium; glandular cuboidal epithelium; simple cuboidal epithelium; composed_primarily_of]

glandular epithelium [UBERON_0006799]

An epithelium that is composed primarily of secretory cells.

gonad [UBERON_0000991]

Reproductive organ that produces and releases eggs (ovary) or sperm (testis).

gonad mesenchyme [UBERON_0003855]

Mesenchyme that is part of a developing gonad [Automatically generated definition].

gonad primordium [UBERON_0005564]

Portion of tissue that gives rise to the immature gonad.

gonadal vein [UBERON_0003848]

In medicine, gonadal vein refers to the blood vessel that carrying blood away from the gonad (testis, ovary) toward the heart. Females : ovarian vein Males : testicular vein [WP,unvetted].

gravid organism [UBERON_0009097]

An organism containing a developing embryo, fetus, or unborn offspring within the body.

gravid uterus [UBERON_0009098]

The uterus in pregnancy.

gray matter [UBERON_0002020]

A nervous system structure composed primarily of nerve cell bodies (somas). May also include dendrites and the initial unmyelinated portion of axons.

gray matter of hindbrain [UBERON_0019263]

[brain gray matter; gray matter of hindbrain; gray matter of the hindbrain; is part of]

gray matter of midbrain [UBERON_0019267]

[brain gray matter; is part of; gray matter of midbrain]

gray matter of spinal cord [UBERON_0002315]

The ridge-shaped grey matter of the spinal cord that extends longitudunally through the center of each half of the spinal cord, and are largely or entirely composed of nerve cell bodies and their dendrites and some supportive tissue.

great vessel of heart [UBERON_0013768]

Great vessels is a term used to refer collectively to the large vessels that bring blood to and from the heart. Groupings may vary - typically pulmonary vessels and aorta and vena cavae

gut mesentery [UBERON_0009664]

[gut mesentery; peritoneal cavity; peritoneal cavity mesentary; located_in]

gut wall [UBERON_0000328]

The wall of the digestive tract. This encompasses all parts of the digestive tract with the exception of the lumen (cavity).

haemolymphatic fluid [UBERON_0000179]

Circulating fluid that is part of the hemolymphoid system. Blood, lymph, interstitial fluid or its analogs.

head [UBERON_0000033]

The head is the anterior-most division of the body [GO].

head blood vessel [UBERON_0003496]

A blood vessel that is part of a head [Automatically generated definition].

head bone [UBERON_0003457]

A bone that is part of a head [Automatically generated definition]. Different sources vary regarding which bones are craniofacial; e.g. hyoid bone

head connective tissue [UBERON_0003566]

A portion of connective tissue that is part of a head [Automatically generated definition].

head external integument structure [UBERON_3000972]

Dermal, epidermal, glandular and pigment structures of the external head integument.

head mesenchyme [UBERON_0005253]

Portion of primordial embryonic connective tissue of the developing head, consisting of mesenchymal cells supported in interlaminar jelly, that derive mostly from the mesoderm and contribute to head connective tissue, bone and musculature in conjunction with cranial neural crest cells.

head mesenchyme from mesoderm [UBERON_0006904]

A head mesenchyme that develops_from a mesoderm.

head or neck skin [UBERON_0012180]

A zone of skin that is part of a craniocervical region.

head paraxial mesoderm [UBERON_0009617]

Bilateral mesenchymal mesoderm parallel and immediately adjacent to the neural tube/notochord; it generates a subset of extra-ocular, and other head, muscles.

head sensillum [UBERON_0000963]

[is part of; head sensillum; arthropod sensillum]

head somite [UBERON_0005594]

Somite located in the head region, caudal to the otic vesicle.

heart [UBERON_0000948]

A myogenic muscular circulatory organ found in the vertebrate cardiovascular system composed of chambers of cardiac muscle. It is the primary circulatory organ. Taxon notes:" the ascidian tube-like heart lacks chambers….The ascidian heart is formed after metamorphosis as a simple tube-like structure with a single-layered myoepithelium that is continuous with a single-layered pericar- dial wall. It lacks chambers and endocardium…. The innovation of the chambered heart was a key event in vertebrate evolution, because the chambered heart generates one-way blood flow with high pressure, a critical requirement for the efficient blood supply of large-body vertebrates… all extant vertebrates have hearts with two or more chambers (Moorman and Christoffels 2003)" DOI:10.1101/gad.1485706

heart blood vessel [UBERON_0003498]

A blood vessel that is part of a heart [Automatically generated definition].

heart elastic tissue [UBERON_0003610]

The type of heart connective tissue found in the endocardial layer that consists mainly of elastic fibers.

heart endothelium [UBERON_0008307]

An endothelium that is part of a heart [Automatically generated definition].

heart layer [UBERON_0005983]

The laminar structure of the heart.

heart left ventricle [UBERON_0002084]

A cardiac ventricle that is in the left side of the heart.

heart plus pericardium [UBERON_0015410]

[heart/pericardium; heart plus pericardium; cardiovascular system; is part of; thoracic cavity element]

heart primordium [UBERON_0003084]

Bilateral groups of cells consisting of three rows: one row of endocardial precursors medially and two rows of myocardical precursors laterally. The two populations fuse at the midline to form the heart rudiment or cone.

heart right ventricle [UBERON_0002080]

A cardiac ventricle that is in the right side of the heart.

heart rudiment [UBERON_0004291]

A cone-like structure that is formed when myocardial progenitor cells of the heart field fuse at the midline. The heart rudiment is the first structure of the heart tube.

heart tube [UBERON_0004141]

An epithelial tube that will give rise to the mature heart.

heart vasculature [UBERON_0018674]

An interconnected tubular multi-tissue structure that contains fluid that is actively transported around the heart.

heart ventricle wall [UBERON_0004784]

An anatomical wall that is part of a cardiac ventricle [Automatically generated definition].

hematopoietic system [UBERON_0002390]

Anatomical system that is involved in the production of hematopoietic cells.

hematopoietic tissue [UBERON_0012429]

Blood-forming tissue, consisting of reticular fibers and cells.

hemolymphoid system [UBERON_0002193]

Anatomical cluster consisting of the hematopoietic system and the lymphoid system, or its analogs.

hemolymphoid system gland [UBERON_0005058]

A gland that is part of a hemolymphoid system [Automatically generated definition].

hemopoietic organ [UBERON_0004177]

Organ that is part of the hematopoietic system.

hepatic acinus [UBERON_0001172]

The functional unit of the liver, consisting of a mass of hepatocytes from adjacent liver lobules aligned around the hepatic arterioles and portal venules just as they anastomose into sinusoids.

hepatic artery [UBERON_0001193]

An artery that supplies the liver.

hepatic diverticulum [UBERON_0008835]

An out-pocket of thickened ventral foregut epithelium adjacent to the developing heart. Constitutes the first morphological sign of the embryonic liver. The anterior portion of the hepatic diverticulum gives rise to the liver and intrahepatic biliary tree, while the posterior portion forms the gall bladder and extrahepatic bile ducts.

hepatic duct [UBERON_0005171]

Any portion of the ducts that carry bile from the liver to the common bile duct. This may include both intrahapetic components (parts of left and right hepatic ducts) and extrahapetic components (common hepatic duct, plus hilar portion).

hepatic duct smooth muscle [UBERON_0004834]

Smooth muscle tissue in all or part of a hepatic duct.

hepatic portal system [UBERON_0010194]

A portal system that begins in capillaries in the wall of the digestive tract and and runs as the hepatic portal vein to the liver.

hepatic portal vein [UBERON_0001639]

A portal vein that transports nutrients from the digestive tract to the liver[Kardong].

hepatic sinusoid [UBERON_0001281]

Wide thin-walled blood vessels in the liver. In mammals they have neither veinous or arterial markers.

hepatic sinusoid of left of lobe of liver [UBERON_0009548]

A hepatic sinusoid that is part of a left lobe of liver.

hepatic sinusoid of right of lobe of liver [UBERON_0009549]

A hepatic sinusoid that is part of a right lobe of liver.

hepatic sinusoidal space [UBERON_0014400]

A sinusoidal space that is part of a hepatic sinusoid.

hepatic vein [UBERON_0001143]

Vein that carries blood away from the liver[ZFA].

hepatobiliary system [UBERON_0002423]

The part of the digestive system that contains the liver and the biliary system.

hepatopancreatic ampulla [UBERON_0004913]

A dilation of the duodenal papilla that is the opening of the juncture of the common bile duct and the main pancreatic duct.

heterogeneous tissue [UBERON_0015757]

[portion of heterogeneous tissue; heterogeneous tissue]

hindbrain [UBERON_0002028]

The most posterior of the three principal regions of the brain. In mammals and birds the hindbrain is divided into a rostral metencephalon and a caudal myelencephalon. In zebrafish, with the exception of the cerebellum, the ventral remainder of the metencephalon can be separated only arbitrarily from the more caudal myelencephalic portion of the medulla oblongata (From: Neuroanatomy of the Zebrafish Brain)[ZFA]. Organ component of neuraxis that has as its parts the pons, cerebellum and medulla oblongata[FMA].

hindbrain marginal layer [UBERON_0034709]

[MZH; neural tube marginal layer; central nervous system cell part cluster; is part of; hindbrain marginal layer]

hindbrain neural plate [UBERON_0009614]

A neural plate that develops_from a presumptive hindbrain.

hindbrain nucleus [UBERON_0009662]

Nucleus located within the hindbrain.

hindbrain venous system [UBERON_0005720]

A venous system that is part of a hindbrain.

hindbrain-spinal cord boundary [UBERON_0005076]

An anatomical boundary that adjacent_to a hindbrain and adjacent_to a spinal cord.

hindgut [UBERON_0001046]

The caudalmost subdivision of a digestive tract.

His-Purkinje system [UBERON_0004146]

The His-Purkinje system receives signals from the AV node and is composed of the fibers that regulate cardiac muscle contraction in the ventricles.

hyaline cartilage tissue [UBERON_0001994]

Cartilage tissue primarily composed of type II collagen (thin fibrils) and a glassy appearance.

hypodermis [UBERON_0002072]

Lowermost layer of the integumentary system in vertebrates. Types of cells that are found in the hypodermis are fibroblasts, adipose cells, and macrophages. It is derived from the mesoderm, but unlike the dermis, it is not derived from the dermatome region of the mesoderm. The hypodermis is used mainly for fat storage[WP].

hypodermis skeletal muscle layer [UBERON_0008876]

Any skeletal muscle organ in the hypodermis / superficial fascia.

ileocecal junction [UBERON_0001073]

A point along the course of the gastrointestinal tract where the small intestine (ileum) ends as it opens into the cecal portion of the large intestine; occurs usually within the iliac fossa, demarcated internally as the ileocecal orifice.

immaterial anatomical entity [UBERON_0000466]

Anatomical entity that has no mass.

immature eye [UBERON_0010312]

Developing anatomical structure that develops into the eyeball and associated structures.

immune organ [UBERON_0005057]

An organ that is part of a immune system [Automatically generated definition].

immune system [UBERON_0002405]

Anatomical system that protects the body from foreign substances, cells, and tissues by producing the immune response and that includes especially the thymus, spleen, lymphoid tissue, lymphocytes including the B cells and T cells, and antibodies.

indifferent external genitalia [UBERON_0009196]

[embryo; indifferent external genitalia; is part of]

indifferent gonad [UBERON_0009117]

A gonad prior to differentiating into a definitive testis or ovary. typically part of the embryo - however, in male tammar wallabies the gonads are indifferent at the neonatal stage[8827321]

inferior mesenteric vein [UBERON_0001215]

A blood vessel that drains blood from the large intestine that usually terminates when reaching the splenic vein, which goes on to form the portal vein with the superior mesenteric vein (SMV). Anatomical variations include the IMV draining into the confluence of the SMV and splenic vein and the IMV draining in the SMV. The IMV lies to the right of the similarly name artery, the inferior mesenteric artery, which originates from the abdominal aorta. [WP,unvetted].

inner cell mass [UBERON_0000087]

A mass of cells that develop into the body of the embryo and some extraembryonic tissues.

inner cell mass derived epiblast [UBERON_0008780]

An embryonic structure that is derived from the inner cell mass and lies above the hypoblast and gives rise to the three primary germ layers. The epiblast cells (appearing on day 8 of human embryonic development) make up a columnar epithelium with dense microvilli on the apical surface. During gastrulation, the epiblast cells undergo epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition and delaminate to become the loose mesenchyme of the primitive streak. The epiblast is present in postimplantation mouse embryos between E5.5-E7.5.

insect adult head [UBERON_6003007]

Head of the adult organism.

insect adult tagma [UBERON_6003005]

Any tagma (UBERON:6000002) that is part of some adult (UBERON:6003004).

integument [UBERON_0002199]

The dermis, epidermis and hypodermis.

integumental system [UBERON_0002416]

Connected anatomical system that forms a barrier between an animal and its environment. In vertebrates, the integumental system consists of the epidermis, dermis plus associated glands and adnexa such as hair and scales. In invertebrates, the integumental system may include cuticle.

integumentary adnexa [UBERON_0006003]

Anatomical structure embedded in or located in the integument that is part of the integumental system. Examples: hair, follicles, skin glands, claws, nails, feathers.

integumentary system layer [UBERON_0013754]

An organ component layer that is part of a integumental system.

interatrial septum [UBERON_0002085]

A cardiac septum that divides the left and right atria of the heart.

intercostal nerve [UBERON_0003727]

The intercostal nerves are the anterior divisions (rami anteriores; ventral divisions) of the thoracic spinal nerves from T1 to T11. Each nerve is connected with the adjoining ganglion of the sympathetic trunk by a gray and a white ramus communicans. The intercostal nerves are distributed chiefly to the thoracic pleura and abdominal peritoneum and differ from the anterior divisions of the other spinal nerves in that each pursues an independent course without plexus formation. The first two nerves supply fibers to the upper limb in addition to their thoracic branches; the next four are limited in their distribution to the parietes of the thorax; the lower five supply the parietes of the thorax and abdomen. The 7th intercostal nerve terminates at the xyphoid process, at the lower end of the sternum. The 10th intercostal nerve terminates at the umbilicus. The twelfth thoracic is distributed to the abdominal wall and groin. [WP,unvetted].

interlobar duct [UBERON_0014720]

A duct that is located between lobes, within conspicuous, thick connective tissue septa that separate lobes. All interlobar ducts are excretory.

interlobular bile duct [UBERON_0001246]

The canals that carry bile in the liver between the intralobular ducts and the biliary ductules; interlobular bile ducts are part of the interlobular portal triad.

interlobular duct [UBERON_0014716]

A duct that is located between lobules, within the thin connective tissue septa that separate lobules. All interlobular ducts are excretory.

intermediate mesoderm [UBERON_0003064]

The intermediate mesoderm is located between the lateral mesoderm and the paraxial mesoderm. It develops into the kidney and gonads.

internal anal region [UBERON_0012361]

[is part of; internal anal region; multi-tissue structure]

internal female genitalia [UBERON_0003975]

The internal feminine genital organs, including the ovaries, uterine tubes, uterus, uterine cervix, and vagina. TODO: Relabel. Make distinct organ class. See https://github.com/obophenotype/uberon/issues/547

internal genitalia [UBERON_0004175]

The internal genitalia are the internal sex organs such as the uterine tube, the uterus and the vagina in female mammals, and the testis, seminal vesicle, ejaculatory duct and prostate in male mammals. TODO: make a subdivision of reproductive system. Relabel. See https://github.com/obophenotype/uberon/issues/547

internal jugular vein [UBERON_0001586]

One of two jugular veins that collect the blood from the brain, the superficial parts of the face, and the neck. [WP,unvetted].

intersomitic artery [UBERON_0002457]

The small branching sprouts of the dorsal aorta that grow across the medial surface of the somite, turn right angles to grow over that surface and then fuse with other sprouts and form the vertebral arteries adjacent to the neural tube; the intersomitic arteries supply the body wall and persist in the adult as the posterior intercostal, subcostal and the lumbar arteries.

intersomitic vessel [UBERON_0014907]

One of the primary blood vessel sprouts that originate from the dorsal aorta and posterior cardinal vein and align dorsoventrally at the myotomal boundaries between somites.

interventricular septum [UBERON_0002094]

Cardiac septum which separates the right ventricle from the left ventricle.[FMA].

interventricular septum endocardium [UBERON_0005243]

An endocardium that is part of a interventricular septum [Automatically generated definition].

interventricular septum membranous part [UBERON_0004666]

The membranous portion of the wall between the two lower chambers of the heart.

interventricular septum muscular part [UBERON_0004667]

The muscular portion of the wall between the two lower chambers of the heart.

intestinal epithelium [UBERON_0001277]

Epithelial layer that lines the intestine.

intestinal gland [UBERON_0000333]

A gland that is part of the intestinal mucosa. Examples include the intestinal crypts, duodenal gland[cjm].

intestinal junction [UBERON_8410024]

An anatomical junction between two parts of the intestine.

intestinal mucosa [UBERON_0001242]

Mucosal layer that lines the intestine.

intestinal submucosa [UBERON_0009566]

A submucosa that is part of a intestine.

intestinal villus [UBERON_0001213]

The tiny hair-like projections that protrude from the inside of the small intestine that contain blood vessels that capture digested nutrients that are absorbed through the intestinal wall; the villi increase the absorptive surface area of the small intestine by approximately 30-fold.

intestinal villus of duodenum [UBERON_0008342]

An intestinal villus in the duodenum.

intestine [UBERON_0000160]

Segment of the alimentary canal extending from the stomach to the anus and, in humans and other mammals, consists of two segments, the small intestine and the large intestine.

intestine secretion [UBERON_0002466]

Clear to pale yellow watery secretions from the glands lining the small intestine walls. Secretion is stimulated by the mechanical pressure of partly digested food in the intestine.

intestine smooth muscle [UBERON_0004221]

A portion of smooth muscle tissue that is part of a intestine [Automatically generated definition].

intra-ocular muscle [UBERON_0011222]

[intrinsic ocular muscle; mesoderm-derived structure; intrinsic muscle of eyeball; intra-ocular muscle; is part of; smooth muscle of eye; eye muscle]

intraembryonic coelom [UBERON_0003887]

The part of the coelom in the embryo between the somatopleuric and splanchnopleuric mesoderm; the principal body cavities of the trunk (thoracic, abdominal, and pelvic) arise from this embryonic part of the coelom.

intrahepatic bile duct [UBERON_0003704]

Passages within the liver for the conveyance of bile. Includes right and left hepatic ducts even though these may join outside the liver to form the common hepatic duct.

intrahepatic bile duct epithelium [UBERON_0004823]

An epithelium that is part of a intrahepatic bile duct [Automatically generated definition].

intralobular bile duct [UBERON_0001282]

The tubules located between the bile canaliculi and interlobular bile ducts near the outer edge of a classic liver lobule.

intralobular duct [UBERON_0014719]

A duct that is located within a lobule, with no more connective tissue intervening between ducts and secretory units (i.e., acini or tubules) than between adjacent secretory units. Intercalated and striated ducts are intralobular.

intramembranous bone [UBERON_0002514]

Bone tissue forms directly within mesenchyme, and does not replace other tissues[TAO]. Intramembranous ossification is the formation of bone in which osteoblasts secrete a collagen-proteoglycan matrix that binds calcium salts and becomes calcified[GO]. Intramembranous ossification is the way flat bones and the shell of a turtle are formed[GO]. Unlike endochondral ossification, cartilage is not present during intramembranous ossification[WP].

intramembranous bone tissue [UBERON_0004764]

Bone tissue that forms directly within mesenchyme, and does not replace other tissues[TAO]. Intramembranous ossification is the formation of bone in which osteoblasts secrete a collagen-proteoglycan matrix that binds calcium salts and becomes calcified[GO]. Intramembranous ossification is the way flat bones and the shell of a turtle are formed[GO]. Unlike endochondral ossification, cartilage is not present during intramembranous ossification[WP].

intramuscular adipose tissue [UBERON_0019143]

Adipose tissue which is located throughout skeletal muscle and is responsible for the marbling seen in certain cuts of beef. In humans, excess accumulation of intramuscular fat is associated with insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes.

intrapulmonary bronchus [UBERON_0035767]

[is part of; lung; intrapulmonary bronchus]

iris [UBERON_0001769]

The adjustable membrane, composed of the stroma and pigmented epithelium, located just in front of the crystalline lens within the eye.

iris blood vessel [UBERON_0003511]

A blood vessel that is part of a iris [Automatically generated definition].

iris epithelium [UBERON_0002506]

An epithelium that is part of a iris [Automatically generated definition].

iris nerve [UBERON_0003438]

Any nerve that innervates the iris.

iris smooth muscle [UBERON_0004234]

A portion of smooth muscle tissue that is part of a iris [Automatically generated definition].

iris stroma [UBERON_0001779]

The delicate vascular connective tissue that lies between the anterior surface of the iris and the pars iridica retinae.

irregular connective tissue [UBERON_0011821]

Connective tissue, which consists of a population of connective tissue cells, the intercellular matrix of which contains an irregular network of collagen and elastic fiber bundles. Examples: areolar tissue, mucoid tissue, connective tissue of peritoneum, connective tissue of fibrous pericardium.

islet of Langerhans [UBERON_0000006]

The clusters of hormone-producing cells that are scattered throughout the pancreas.

jaw epithelium [UBERON_0035037]

[jaw epithelium; is part of; digestive tract epithelium; jaw region]

jaw mesenchyme [UBERON_0034995]

Mesenchyme that is part of a developing jaw [Automatically generated definition].

jaw muscle [UBERON_0011648]

[mastication; cranial muscle; capable_of_part_of; mandibular muscles; jaw muscle]

jaw region [UBERON_0011595]

A subdivision of the head that corresponds to the jaw skeleton, containing both soft tissue, skeleton and teeth (when present). The jaw region is divided into upper and lower regions.

jaw skeleton [UBERON_0001708]

Subdivision of skeleton which includes upper and lower jaw skeletons.

joint of girdle [UBERON_0008114]

A skeletal joint that is part of a appendage girdle region.

jugular vein [UBERON_0004711]

The jugular veins are veins that bring deoxygenated blood from the head back to the heart via the superior vena cava.

lamina [UBERON_0000957]

Any thin layer or plate.

lamina of gray matter of spinal cord [UBERON_0016570]

[rexed lamina; nervous system cell part layer; central nervous system cell part cluster; is part of; lamina of gray matter of spinal cord]

lamina propria [UBERON_0000030]

A thin layer of loose connective tissue which lies beneath the epithelium and together with the epithelium constitutes the mucosa[WP]. The lamina propria contains capillaries and a central lacteal (lymph vessel) in the small intestine, as well as lymphoid tissue. Lamina propria also contains glands with the ducts opening on to the mucosal epithelium, that secrete mucus and serous secretions.

lamina propria of bronchus [UBERON_0002338]

A lamina propria that is part of a bronchus [Automatically generated definition].

lamina propria of esophagus [UBERON_0001974]

A lamina propria that is part of a esophagus [Automatically generated definition].

lamina propria of large intestine [UBERON_0011189]

A lamina propria that is part of a large intestine.

lamina propria of mucosa of colon [UBERON_0007177]

A lamina propria that is part of a colonic mucosa.

lamina propria of small intestine [UBERON_0001238]

Lamina propria that is part_of the small intestine.

lamina propria of trachea [UBERON_0000031]

A lamina propria that is part of a respiratory airway.

large intestine [UBERON_0000059]

A subdivision of the digestive tract that connects the small intestine to the cloaca or anus. Lacks or has few villi[Kardong].

large intestine smooth muscle [UBERON_0004220]

A portion of smooth muscle tissue that is part of a large intestine [Automatically generated definition].

lateral plate mesoderm [UBERON_0003081]

Portion of the middle of the three primary germ layers of the embryo that resides on the periphery of the embryo, is continuous with the extra-embryonic mesoderm, splits into two layers enclosing the intra-embryonic coelom, and gives rise to body wall structures[MP].

lateral structure [UBERON_0015212]

Any structure that is placed on one side of the left-right axis of a bilaterian.

layer of microvilli [UBERON_0012423]

A layer of microvilli, Thin cylindrical membrane-covered projections on the surface of an animal cell containing a core bundle of actin filaments[GO,modified].

layer of muscle tissue [UBERON_0018260]

Any organ component layer that consists of muscle tissue.

layer of retina [UBERON_0001781]

Any of the layers that make up the retina[MP].

layer of sclera [UBERON_0010291]

.

layer of smooth muscle tissue [UBERON_0034933]

Any organ component layer that consists of smooth muscle tissue.

layer of synovial tissue [UBERON_0007616]

A thin, loose vascular connective tissue that makes up the membranes surrounding joints and the sheaths protecting tendons (particularly flexor tendons in the hands and feet) where they pass over bony prominences. Synovial tissue contains synovial cells, which secrete a viscous liquid called synovial fluid; this liquid contains protein and hyaluronic acid and serves as a lubricant and nutrient for the joint cartilage surfaces[BTO]. Synovial tissue can be found in tendons (tissues that connect muscle to bone), bursae (fluid-filled, cushioning sacs found in spaces between tendons, ligaments, and bones), and the cavity (hollow enclosed area) that separates the bones of a freely movable joint, such as the knee or elbow[BTO].

left atrium endocardium [UBERON_0034903]

Endocardium that is part of the left atrium.

left cardiac atrium [UBERON_0002079]

A cardiac atrium that is in the left side of the heart. It receives oxygenated blood from the pulmonary veins, In mammals this is pumped into the left ventricle, via the Mitral valve.

left cardiac chamber [UBERON_0035553]

Any chamber of the left side of the heart.

left dorsal aorta [UBERON_0005613]

[left dorsal aorta; is part of; trunk blood vessel]

left eye [UBERON_0004548]

An eye that is part of a left side of organism [Automatically generated definition].

left hepatic artery [UBERON_0015481]

A hepatic artery that is part of a left lobe of liver.

left hepatic duct [UBERON_0001177]

The duct that drains bile from the left half of the liver and joins the right hepatic duct to form the common hepatic duct.

left hepatic vein [UBERON_0011955]

A hepatic vein that is part of a left lobe of liver.

left lobe of liver [UBERON_0001115]

The left lobe is smaller and more flattened than the right. It is situated in the epigastric and left hypochondriac regions. Its upper surface is slightly convex and is moulded on to the diaphragm; its under surface presents the gastric impression and omental tuberosity. [WP,unvetted].

left lung [UBERON_0002168]

Lung which consists of the left upper lobe and left lower lobe.[FMA].

left lung associated mesenchyme [UBERON_0009602]

Mesenchyme that is part of a developing left lung.

left lung bronchiole [UBERON_0003539]

A bronchiole that is part of a left lung [Automatically generated definition].

left lung endothelium [UBERON_0005673]

An endothelium that is part of a left lung.

left lung terminal bronchiole [UBERON_0003541]

A terminal bronchiole that is part of a left lung [Automatically generated definition].

left ovarian vein [UBERON_0039857]

Ovarian vein, each instance of which is a tributary of some left renal vein that drains the left pampiniform plexus of some broad ligament.

left ovary [UBERON_0002119]

An ovary that is part of a left side of organism [Automatically generated definition].

left pelvic girdle region [UBERON_0011093]

A pelvic girdle region that is in the left side of a multicellular organism.

left pulmonary artery [UBERON_0001652]

The pulmonary artery that supplies the left lung.

left pulmonary vein [UBERON_0009030]

Vein that drains left lung and returns blood to the heart.

left side of back [UBERON_8000006]

Left part of the organism dorsal to a horizontal plane and bounded on one side by the same transverse plane.

left subclavian artery [UBERON_0001584]

The subclavian artery that supplies the left pectoral appendage.

left uterine tube [UBERON_0001303]

A fallopian tube that is part of a left side of organism [Automatically generated definition].

left ventricle myocardium [UBERON_0006566]

A myocardium that is part of a left ventricle of a heart.

left vitelline vein [UBERON_0005460]

A vitelline vein that is in the left side of a multicellular organism.

lens anterior epithelium [UBERON_0005614]

A layer of cuboidal epithelial cells bounded anteriorly by the capsule of the lens and posteriorly by the lens cortex.

lens cortex [UBERON_0000389]

Tissue that surrounds the lens nucleus.

lens nucleus [UBERON_0000390]

The core of the crystalline lens, surrounded by the cortex.

lens of camera-type eye [UBERON_0000965]

Transparent part of camera-type eye that helps to refract light to be focused on the retina. The lens is avascular and nourished by diffusion from the aqueous and vitreous

lens placode [UBERON_0003073]

A thickened portion of ectoderm which serves as the precursor to the lens. SOX2 and Pou2f1 are involved in its development[WP].

lens vesicle [UBERON_0005426]

Portion of tissue that gives rise to the lens.

lens vesicle cavity [UBERON_0005688]

An anatomical cavity that is part of a lens vesicle.

lens vesicle epithelium [UBERON_0005656]

An epithelium that is part of a lens vesicle.

life cycle [UBERON_0000104]

An entire span of an organism’s life, commencing with the zygote stage and ending in the death of the organism.

life cycle stage [UBERON_0000105]

A spatiotemporal region encompassing some part of the life cycle of an organism.

ligament [UBERON_0000211]

Dense regular connective tissue connecting two or more adjacent skeletal elements or supporting an organ.

lip [UBERON_0001833]

One of the two fleshy folds which surround the opening of the mouth.

lip epithelium [UBERON_0006913]

An epithelium that is part of a lip.

lip skeletal muscle [UBERON_0004833]

A portion of skeletal muscle tissue that is part of a lip [Automatically generated definition].

liver [UBERON_0002107]

An exocrine gland which secretes bile and functions in metabolism of protein and carbohydrate and fat, synthesizes substances involved in the clotting of the blood, synthesizes vitamin A, detoxifies poisonous substances, stores glycogen, and breaks down worn-out erythrocytes[GO].

liver blood vessel [UBERON_0015796]

A blood vessel that is part of a liver.

liver bud [UBERON_0008836]

[epithelial sac; hepatic diverticulum; develops from; endodermal part of digestive tract; liver bud; epithelium of foregut-midgut junction; digestive tract diverticulum]

liver left lobe parenchyma [UBERON_0005222]

A parenchyma that is part of a left lobe of liver [Automatically generated definition].

liver lobule [UBERON_0004647]

The polygonal structure of the liver that consists of hepatocytes radiating outward from a hepatic vein.

liver parenchyma [UBERON_0001280]

The functional units of the liver including the lobules.

liver primordium [UBERON_0003894]

A small endodermal thickening in the foregut adjacent to the transverse septum. Invaginates forming the hepatic diverticulum.

liver right lobe parenchyma [UBERON_0005221]

A parenchyma that is part of a right lobe of liver [Automatically generated definition].

liver serosa [UBERON_8400021]

Hepatic serous coat; peritoneal covering of the liver, enclosing almost all except for a triangular area on its posterior surface (the ‘bare area of the liver’) and a smaller area where the liver and gallbladder are in direct contact.

liver stroma [UBERON_0016478]

A stroma that is part of a liver.

liver subserosa [UBERON_8400023]

Subserosal tissue of liver. A zone of areolar connective tissue lying beneath the serous coat of the liver and distinguished with difficulty from the fibrous capsule of Glisson.

lobe of liver [UBERON_0001113]

Traditional gross anatomy divided the liver into four lobes based on surface features. The falciform ligament is visible on the front (anterior side) of the liver. This divides the liver into a left anatomical lobe, and a right anatomical lobe.

lobule [UBERON_0009911]

[lobule; organ subunit; lobulus]

locus ceruleus [UBERON_0002148]

The locus ceruleus is a dense cluster of neurons within the dorsorostral pons. This nucleus is the major location of neurons that release norepinephrine throughout the brain, and is responsible for physiological responses to stress and panic[GO]. Bluish region in the superior angle of the fourth ventricle floor, corresponding to melanin-like pigmented nerve cells which lie lateral to the ponto-mesencephalic central gray (griseum centrale). It is also known as nucleus pigmentosus pontis[GAID].

loose connective tissue [UBERON_0011825]

Irregular connective tissue, the intercellular matrix of which contains a sparse irregular network of collagen and elastic fiber bundles. Examples: areolar tissue, neuroglial tissue, mucoid tissue.

lower digestive tract [UBERON_0004907]

The region of the digestive tract extending from the beginning of the intestines to the anus[GO - gut definition].

lower jaw opening [UBERON_0011772]

An anatomical space that is part of a bone of lower jaw.

lower jaw region [UBERON_0001710]

Subdivision of head that consists of the lower jaw skeletal elements plus associated soft tissue (skin, lips, muscle)[cjm]. See notes for jaw w.r.t skeletal element vs subdivision of head

lower lip [UBERON_0001835]

Lip that covers the lower portion of the mouth.[TAO].

lower respiratory tract [UBERON_0001558]

The segment of the respiratory tract that starts proximally with the trachea and includes all distal structures including the lungs[WP,modified].

lower respiratory tract cartilage [UBERON_0003603]

A cartilage that is part of a lower respiratory tract [Automatically generated definition].

lower respiratory tract connective tissue [UBERON_0003580]

A portion of connective tissue that is part of a lower respiratory tract [Automatically generated definition].

lower respiratory tract epithelium [UBERON_0004815]

An epithelium that is part of a lower respiratory tract [Automatically generated definition].

lower respiratory tract smooth muscle [UBERON_0004233]

A portion of smooth muscle tissue that is part of a lower respiratory tract [Automatically generated definition].

lumen of anal canal [UBERON_0007158]

An anatomical cavity that surrounded_by a anal canal.

lumen of blood vessel [UBERON_0010161]

An anatomical cavity that surrounded_by a blood vessel.

lumen of colon [UBERON_0007159]

An anatomical cavity that surrounded_by a colon.

lumen of digestive tract [UBERON_0006909]

An anatomical space that surrounded_by a digestive tract.

lumen of duodenum [UBERON_0016512]

An anatomical space that is part of a duodenum.

lumen of epithelial sac [UBERON_0007473]

The space within an epithelial sphere.

lumen of esophagus [UBERON_0011566]

An anatomical cavity that is part of a esophagus.

lumen of gastrointestinal system [UBERON_0011565]

[cavity of gastrointestinal tract; lumen of gastrointestinal system; digestive system; anatomical cavity; is part of; cavity of digestive tract; gastrointestinal tract lumen]

lumen of hindgut [UBERON_0007148]

An anatomical cavity that surrounded_by a hindgut.

lumen of intestine [UBERON_0018543]

The anatomical space within the intestine.

lumen of midgut [UBERON_0007147]

An anatomical cavity that surrounded_by a midgut.

lumen of terminal part of digestive tract [UBERON_0012465]

An anatomical space that is enclosed by a terminal part of digestive tract.

lumen of trachea [UBERON_0006833]

An anatomical space that surrounded_by a trachea.

lung [UBERON_0002048]

Respiration organ that develops as an outpocketing of the esophagus. Snakes and limbless lizards typically possess only the right lung as a major respiratory organ; the left lung is greatly reduced, or even absent. Amphisbaenians, however, have the opposite arrangement, with a major left lung, and a reduced or absent right lung [WP]

lung blood vessel [UBERON_0003512]

A blood vessel that is part of a lung [Automatically generated definition].

lung bud [UBERON_0000118]

Structure derived from foregut that becomes a lung[GO].

lung connective tissue [UBERON_0000114]

The connective tissue located between the respiratory (airway and alveolar) epithelium, the capillary endothelium and pleural mesothelium; it contains basement membrane composed of collagen, elastin, proteoglycans, and fibronectin.

lung elastic tissue [UBERON_0003615]

Elastic tissue that is part of a lung [Automatically generated definition].

lung endothelium [UBERON_0013479]

A blood vessel endothelium that is part of a lung [Automatically generated definition].

lung epithelium [UBERON_0000115]

The epithelial layer of the lung.

lung field [UBERON_0022361]

A specific region of the foregut into the area in which the lung will develop.

lung mesenchyme [UBERON_0004883]

The mass of tissue made up of mesenchymal cells in the lung.

lung parenchyma [UBERON_0008946]

A parenchyma that is part of a lung.

lung primordium [UBERON_0005597]

A pair of lateral diverticula just over the liver rudiment representing the primordia of the lungs, formed by the floor of the foregut just anterior to the liver diverticulum.

lung vasculature [UBERON_0000102]

The lung vasculature is composed of the tubule structures that carry blood or lymph in the lungs[GO].

lymphomyeloid tissue [UBERON_0034769]

[heterogeneous tissue; lymphomyeloid tissue]

main body axis [UBERON_0013701]

A principle subdivision of an organism that includes all structures along the primary axis, typically the anterior-posterior axis, from head to tail, including structures of the body proper where present (for example, ribs), but excluding appendages.

mandibular neural crest [UBERON_0007098]

Cranial neural crest that migrates into the mandibular arch.

mandibular process mesenchyme [UBERON_0006905]

Mesenchyme that is part of a mandibular prominence.

mandibular process mesenchyme from head mesenchyme [UBERON_0010337]

Mesenchyme that develops_from a head mesenchyme from mesoderm and is part of a mandibular process mesenchyme.

mandibular process mesenchyme from neural crest [UBERON_0010336]

Mesenchyme that develops_from a neural crest and is part of a mandibular process mesenchyme.

mandibular prominence [UBERON_0005867]

The paired ventral prominences formed by bifurcation of the first pharyngeal arches in the embryo; the two prominences unite ventrally and fuse to form the mandible and lower lip.

material anatomical entity [UBERON_0000465]

Anatomical entity that has mass.

material entity in digestive tract [UBERON_0035118]

Any material entity that is located in the digestive tract. This includes undigested food and liquid as well as unexcreted waste products. It also includes other entities such as ingested stones used to aid digestion. Any microbial cells or cell populations are also included.

matrix-based tissue [UBERON_0007475]

A tissue whose predominant feature is extracellular matrix which may or may not be highly hydrated or calcified.

maxillary artery [UBERON_0001616]

An artery that supplies deep structures of the face. It comes just out behind the neck of the mandible. [WP,unvetted].

maxillary nerve [UBERON_0000377]

The sensory nerve subdivision of the trigeminal nerve that transmits sensory information from the palate, upper teeth and gingiva, the skin between the palpebral fissure and the mouth, and from the nasal cavity and maxillary sinuses.

mechanosensory system [UBERON_0007037]

[sensory perception of mechanical stimulus; mechanosensory system; capable of]

medulla oblongata [UBERON_0001896]

Organ component of neuraxis that has as its parts the medullary reticular formation, inferior olivary complex and cochlear nuclear complex, among other structures[FMA]. The medulla oblongata lies directly above the spinal cord and controls vital autonomic functions such as digestion, breathing and the control of heart rate[GO].

medulla oblongata sulcus limitans [UBERON_0009576]

A sulcus limitans of neural tube that is part of a future medulla oblongata.

membrane bone [UBERON_0007842]

Bone element that arises as a result of intramembranous ossification.

membrane organ [UBERON_0000094]

Nonparenchymatous organ that primarily consists of dense connective tissue organized into a sheet which interconnects two or more organs, separates two or more body spaces from one another, or surrounds an organ or body part. Examples: interosseous membrane of forearm, obturator membrane, tympanic membrane, fibrous pericardium, fascia lata, dura mater. [FMA].

membranous layer [UBERON_0000158]

[organ part; membranous layer; organ component layer; membrane; bounding layer of]

merocrine gland [UBERON_0010243]

An exocrine gland whose secretions are excreted via exocytosis from secretory cells into an epithelial-walled duct or ducts and thence onto a bodily surface or into the lumen; the gland releases its product and no part of the gland is lost or damaged.

mesencephalic neural crest [UBERON_0003849]

A neural crest that has_potential_to_developmentally_contribute_to a midbrain.

mesenchyme [UBERON_0003104]

Portion of tissue composed of mesenchymal cells (motile cells that develop from epthelia via an epithelial to mesenchymal transition) and surrounding extracellular material. Mesenchyme has different embryological origins in different metazoan taxa - in many invertebrates it derives in whole or part from ectoderm. In vertebrates it derives largely from mesoderm, and sometimes the terms are used interchangeably, e.g. lateral plate mesoderm/mesenchyme.

mesenchyme derived from head neural crest [UBERON_0007213]

Mesenchyme that develops_from a cranial neural crest.

mesenchyme derived from neural crest [UBERON_0014387]

Mesenchyme that develops_from the neural crest[Automatically generated definition].

mesenchyme derived from trunk neural crest [UBERON_0007214]

Mesenchyme that develops_from a trunk neural crest.

mesenchyme from rhombencephalic neural crest [UBERON_0010258]

Mesenchyme that develops_from a rhombencephalon neural crest.

mesenchyme from somatopleure [UBERON_0010377]

Mesenchyme that develops_from a somatopleure.

mesenchyme from splanchnopleure [UBERON_0010378]

Mesenchyme that develops_from a splanchnopleure.

mesenchyme of hindgut [UBERON_0009503]

Mesenchyme that is part of a developing hindgut.

mesenchyme of lower jaw [UBERON_0003324]

Mesenchyme that is part of a developing lower jaw [Automatically generated definition].

mesenchyme of ovary [UBERON_0003315]

Mesenchyme that is part of a developing ovary [Automatically generated definition].

mesenchyme of trachea [UBERON_0009505]

Mesenchyme that is part of a developing trachea.

mesenchyme of yolk sac [UBERON_0003316]

The portion of the yolk sac that is derived from mesoderm and consists of mesenchyme.

mesenteric artery [UBERON_0005616]

Arteries which arise from the abdominal aorta and distribute to most of the intestines.

mesenteric vein [UBERON_0005617]

A vein that returns blood from the intestines.

mesentery [UBERON_0002095]

Anatomical organ component composed of a double layer of serous membrane that suspends a viscus from the body wall or connects adjacent viscera and in doing so conveys blood vessels, lymphatics and nerves to and from the viscera. Examples: greater omentum, broad ligament of uterus, sigmoid mesocolon.

mesentery of colon [UBERON_0003396]

A mesentery that is part of a colon [Automatically generated definition].

mesentery of duodenum [UBERON_0003397]

A mesentery that is part of a duodenum [Automatically generated definition].

mesentery of foregut-midgut junction [UBERON_0009483]

A mesentery that is part of a foregut-midgut junction.

mesentery of heart [UBERON_0003282]

A mesentery that surrounds the heart.

mesentery of hindgut [UBERON_0003394]

A mesentery that is part of a hindgut [Automatically generated definition].

mesentery of midgut [UBERON_0003284]

A mesentery that is part of a midgut [Automatically generated definition].

mesentery of oesophagus [UBERON_0003283]

A mesentery that is part of a esophagus [Automatically generated definition].

mesentery of rectum [UBERON_0003395]

A mesentery that is part of a rectum [Automatically generated definition].

mesentery of small intestine [UBERON_0001170]

The peritoneum responsible for connecting the jejunum and ileum (parts of the small intestine) to the back wall of the abdomen. Between the two sheets of peritoneum are blood vessels, lymph vessels, and nerves. This allows these parts of the small intestine to move relatively freely within the abdominopelvic cavity. The brain, however, cannot map sensation accurately, so sensation is usually referred to the midline, an example of referred pain[WP].

mesentery of stomach [UBERON_0003281]

The portion of the primitive mesentery that encloses the stomach; from its dorsal sheet, the greater omentum develops, and from its ventral sheet, the lesser omentum.

mesentery of urinary system [UBERON_0003393]

A mesentery that is part of a urinary system [Automatically generated definition].

meso-epithelium [UBERON_0012275]

Epithelium that derives from the mesoderm. [Automatically generated definition].

mesoderm [UBERON_0000926]

The middle germ layer of the embryo, between the endoderm and ectoderm.

mesoderm blood island [UBERON_0003304]

A blood island that is part of a mesoderm.

mesoderm-derived structure [UBERON_0004120]

An anatomical structure that develops (entirely or partially) from the mesoderm.

mesometrium [UBERON_0003885]

A mesentery that is part of a uterus [Automatically generated definition].

mesothelium [UBERON_0001136]

Simple squamous epithelium of mesodermal origin which lines serous membranes. Examples: mesothelium of pleura, mesothelium of peritoneum[FMA]. Wikipedia: The mesothelium is a membrane that forms the lining of several body cavities: the pleura (thoracal cavity), peritoneum (abdominal cavity including the mesentery) and pericardium (heart sac). Mesothelial tissue also surrounds the male internal reproductive organs (the tunica vaginalis testis) and covers the internal reproductive organs of women (the tunica serosa uteri).

mesothelium of diaphragm [UBERON_0003389]

A mesothelium that is part of a diaphragm [Automatically generated definition].

mesothelium of pericardial cavity [UBERON_0003388]

A mesothelium that is part of a pericardium [Automatically generated definition].

mesothelium of pleural cavity [UBERON_0003390]

A mesothelium that is part of a pleural cavity [Automatically generated definition].

mesothelium of serous pericardium [UBERON_0007188]

A mesothelium that is part of a serous pericardium.

metencephalon [UBERON_0001895]

Rostral segment of the hindbrain that has as its parts the pons (where present) and the cerebellum[WP,modified]. the terms metencephalon and myelencephalon are only meaningful in mammals and birds[Neuroanatomy of the Zebrafish Brain]. In zebrafish, with the exception of the cerebellum, the ventral remainder of the metencephalon can be separated only arbitrarily from the more caudal myelencephalic portion of the medulla oblongata and thus these are not distinguished in ZFA[ZFA].

metencephalon sulcus limitans [UBERON_0009577]

A sulcus limitans of neural tube that is part of a future metencephalon.

microcirculatory vessel [UBERON_0010523]

A vessel of the microcirculature, lying between the arterioles and venules; includes capillaries (blood and lymphatic), metarterioles and arteriovenous anastomoses.

microvascular endothelium [UBERON_0008339]

[microvascular endothelium; cardiovascular system endothelium]

midbrain [UBERON_0001891]

The midbrain is the middle division of the three primary divisions of the developing chordate brain or the corresponding part of the adult brain (in vertebrates, includes a ventral part containing the cerebral peduncles and a dorsal tectum containing the corpora quadrigemina and that surrounds the aqueduct of Sylvius connecting the third and fourth ventricles)[GO].

midbrain basal plate [UBERON_0010285]

Portion of tissue that is dorsolateral to the floor plate and part of the midbrain.

midbrain hindbrain boundary neural plate [UBERON_0009615]

[MHB neural plate; presumptive structure; is part of; presumptive midbrain hindbrain boundary; immediate transformation of; midbrain hindbrain boundary neural plate]

midbrain mantle layer [UBERON_0009581]

[midbrain lateral wall mantle layer; midbrain mantle layer; mantle layer lateral wall mesencephalon; is part of; presumptive midbrain; neural tube mantle layer]

midbrain neural plate [UBERON_0009611]

A neural plate that develops_from a presumptive midbrain.

midbrain neural tube [UBERON_0010286]

Portion of neural tube that gives rise to the midbrain.

midbrain neuromere [UBERON_0014776]

A neuromere that is part of the presumptive midbrain.

midbrain nucleus [UBERON_0009661]

Nucleus located in the midbrain.

midbrain tegmentum [UBERON_0001943]

Ventral part of the midbrain, separated from the hindbrain by the isthmus[ISBN:0471888893]. Subdivision of the midbrain lying anterior to the tectum and posterior to the substantia nigra and cerebral peduncle[FMA] The part of the midbrain extending from the substantia nigra to the cerebral aqueduct in a horizontal section of the midbrain. It forms the floor of the midbrain that surrounds the cerebral aqueduct[WP]. ‘tegmentum’ is used generically for the ventral part of the brainstem (ISBN:0471888893). We use the label ‘midbrain tegmentum’ to denote the midbrain structure. In NIFSTD tegmentum is a composite structure and there is a separate class for midbrain tegmentum and pontine tegmentum

midbrain-hindbrain boundary [UBERON_0003052]

The part of the brain that is the morphological boundary between the midbrain and hindbrain and that is the location of an organizing center which patterns the midbrain and hindbrain primordia of the neural plate.

midgut [UBERON_0001045]

Middle subdivision of a digestive tract[CJM]. In vertebrates: The middle part of the alimentary canal from the stomach, or entrance of the bile duct, to, or including, the large intestine[GO].

midgut dorsal mesentery [UBERON_0005685]

A dorsal mesentery that is part of a midgut.

midgut duodenum mesentery [UBERON_0005712]

A mesentery of duodenum that is part of a midgut.

migrating mesenchyme population [UBERON_0007530]

Mesenchymal cells that are migrating.

mixed ectoderm/mesoderm/endoderm-derived structure [UBERON_0000078]

An anatomical structure that develops from the ectoderm, mesoderm and endoderm.

mixed endoderm/mesoderm-derived structure [UBERON_0000077]

An anatomical structure that develops from the endoderm and the mesoderm.

morula [UBERON_0000085]

A spherical embryonic mass of blastomeres formed before the blastula and resulting from cleavage of the fertilized ovum.

mouth [UBERON_0000165]

The proximal portion of the digestive tract, containing the oral cavity and bounded by the oral opening. In vertebrates, this extends to the pharynx and includes gums, lips, tongue and parts of the palate. Typically also includes the teeth, except where these occur elsewhere (e.g. pharyngeal jaws) or protrude from the mouth (tusks).

mouth mucosa [UBERON_0003729]

A mucous membrane that lines the mouth.

mouth-foregut junction [UBERON_0006264]

An anatomical junctions that overlaps the mouth and foregut.

mucosa [UBERON_0000344]

A lining of mostly endodermal origin, covered in epithelium, which is involved in absorption and secretion. They line various body cavities that are exposed to the external environment and internal organs. It is at several places continuous with skin: at the nostrils, the lips, the ears, the genital area, and the anus. The sticky, thick fluid secreted by the mucous membranes and gland is termed mucus. The term mucous membrane refers to where they are found in the body and not every mucous membrane secretes mucus[WP].

mucosa of anal canal [UBERON_0003342]

A mucosa that is part of an anal canal [Automatically generated definition].

mucosa of biliary tree [UBERON_0004999]

A mucosa that is part of a biliary tree [Automatically generated definition].

mucosa of body of stomach [UBERON_0004995]

A mucosa that is part of a body of stomach [Automatically generated definition].

mucosa of bronchiole [UBERON_0005039]

A mucosa that is part of a bronchiole [Automatically generated definition].

mucosa of common bile duct [UBERON_0005000]

A mucosa that is part of a common bile duct [Automatically generated definition].

mucosa of common hepatic duct [UBERON_0005001]

A mucosa that is part of a common hepatic duct [Automatically generated definition].

mucosa of cystic duct [UBERON_0004988]

A mucosa that is part of a cystic duct [Automatically generated definition].

mucosa of gallbladder [UBERON_0005033]

A mucosa that is part of a gallbladder [Automatically generated definition].

mucosa of gastroduodenal junction [UBERON_0012651]

A mucosa that is part of a gastroduodenal junction.

mucosa of infundibulum of uterine tube [UBERON_0005049]

A mucosa that is part of a uterine tube infundibulum [Automatically generated definition].

mucosa of large intestine [UBERON_0001207]

A mucosa that is part of a large intestine [Automatically generated definition].

mucosa of left hepatic duct [UBERON_0005003]

A mucosa that is part of a left hepatic duct [Automatically generated definition].

mucosa of left uterine tube [UBERON_0005012]

A mucosa that is part of a left uterine tube [Automatically generated definition].

mucosa of lip [UBERON_0036294]

A mucosa that is part of a lip region [Automatically generated definition].

mucosa of lower lip [UBERON_0005032]

A mucosa that is part of a lower lip [Automatically generated definition].

mucosa of oral region [UBERON_0003343]

A mucosa that is part of a oral opening [Automatically generated definition].

mucosa of pyloric antrum [UBERON_0004997]

A mucosa that is part of a pyloric antrum [Automatically generated definition].

mucosa of pylorus [UBERON_0004998]

A mucosa that is part of a pylorus [Automatically generated definition].

mucosa of rectum [UBERON_0003346]

A mucosa that is part of a rectum [Automatically generated definition].

mucosa of right hepatic duct [UBERON_0005002]

A mucosa that is part of a right hepatic duct [Automatically generated definition].

mucosa of right uterine tube [UBERON_0005011]

A mucosa that is part of a right uterine tube [Automatically generated definition].

mucosa of sigmoid colon [UBERON_0004993]

A mucosa that is part of a sigmoid colon [Automatically generated definition].

mucosa of small intestine [UBERON_0001204]

A mucosa that is part of a small intestine [Automatically generated definition].

mucosa of stomach [UBERON_0001199]

The mucosal layer that lines the stomach.

mucosa of terminal bronchiole [UBERON_0005040]

A mucosa that is part of a terminal bronchiole [Automatically generated definition].

mucosa of uterine tube [UBERON_0005048]

A mucosa that is part of a fallopian tube [Automatically generated definition].

mucous acinus [UBERON_0014717]

The secretory unit of a mucous gland. The acinar portion is composed of mucous secreting cells.

mucous gland [UBERON_0000414]

A gland in which the principal secretory cells are mucus secreting cells.

mucous gland of lung [UBERON_0019190]

[is part of; mucous gland of lung; endoderm-derived structure; respiratory system gland; bronchial gland; thoracic segment organ]

mucus [UBERON_0000912]

Mucus is a bodily fluid consisting of a slippery secretion of the lining of the mucous membranes in the body. It is a viscous colloid containing antiseptic enzymes (such as lysozyme) and immunoglobulins. Mucus is produced by goblet cells in the mucous membranes that cover the surfaces of the membranes. It is made up of mucins and inorganic salts suspended in water.

Mullerian duct [UBERON_0003890]

Paired ducts of the embryo that run down the lateral sides of the urogenital ridge and terminate at the mullerian eminence in the primitive urogenital sinus. In the female, they will develop to form the fallopian tubes, uterus, and the upper portion of the vagina; in the male, they are lost. These ducts are made of tissue of mesodermal origin[WP]. develops either by lengthwise splitting of the archinephric duct (in chondrichthyans and some amphibians) or by a elongated invagination of the coelomic epithelium (other vertebrates) In males, the oviducts regress. The cranial end of the oviduct maintains an opening into the coelom (which primitively may have been the anteriormost coelomic funnels connecting the nephrocoel with the coelom). This opening is the ostium tubae[USM].

multi cell part structure [UBERON_0005162]

A structure consisting of multiple cell components but which is not itself a cell and does not have (complete) cells as a part.

multi organ part structure [UBERON_0034921]

An multicellular anatomical structure that has subparts of multiple organs as a part.

multi-tissue structure [UBERON_0000481]

Anatomical structure that has as its parts two or more portions of tissue of at least two different types and which through specific morphogenetic processes forms a single distinct structural unit demarcated by bona-fide boundaries from other distinct structural units of different types.

multi-unit eye [UBERON_0015165]

An eye consisting of multiple light-sensing organs.

multicellular anatomical structure [UBERON_0010000]

An anatomical structure that has more than one cell as a part.

multicellular organism [UBERON_0000468]

Anatomical structure that is an individual member of a species and consists of more than one cell.

multilaminar epithelium [UBERON_0000486]

Epithelium which consists of more than one layer of epithelial cells that may or may not be in contact with a basement membrane. Examples: keratinized stratified squamous epithelium, ciliated stratified columnar epithelium.[FMA].

muscle layer of anal canal [UBERON_0012490]

A muscular coat that is part of a anal canal.

muscle layer of cloaca [UBERON_0012486]

A muscular coat that is part of a cloaca.

muscle layer of colon [UBERON_0012489]

A muscular coat that is part of a colon.

muscle layer of duodenum [UBERON_0012488]

A muscular coat that is part of a duodenum.

muscle layer of esophagus [UBERON_0011878]

A muscle layer that is part of a wall of esophagus.

muscle layer of infundibulum of uterine tube [UBERON_0007182]

A muscle layer that is part of a uterine tube infundibulum.

muscle layer of intestine [UBERON_0012367]

A muscle layer that is part of an intestine.

muscle layer of large intestine [UBERON_0011198]

A muscle layer that is part of a large intestine.

muscle layer of oviduct [UBERON_0006642]

A muscle layer that is part of a fallopian tube.

muscle layer of rectum [UBERON_0018111]

A muscle layer that is part of the rectum.

muscle layer of sigmoid colon [UBERON_0035805]

A muscle layer that is part of the sigmoid colon.

muscle layer of small intestine [UBERON_0011201]

A muscle layer that is part of a small intestine.

muscle of abdomen [UBERON_0002378]

Muscle (organ) which is a part of the abdomen. Examples: external oblique, rectus abdominis.

muscle of back [UBERON_0002324]

Any muscle organ that is part of a back [Automatically generated definition].

muscle of iris [UBERON_0001606]

.

muscle of neck [UBERON_0002377]

Any muscle that is part of the cervical (neck) region.

muscle of pectoral girdle [UBERON_0008196]

Any muscle organ that is part of a pectoral girdle region.

muscle of pelvic girdle [UBERON_0001497]

Any muscle organ that is part of a pelvic girdle [Automatically generated definition].

muscle of pelvis [UBERON_0001325]

Muscle (organ) which is a part of the pelvis. Examples: levator ani,.

muscle organ [UBERON_0001630]

Organ consisting of a tissue made up of various elongated cells that are specialized to contract and thus to produce movement and mechanical work[GO].

muscle structure [UBERON_0005090]

Muscle structures are contractile cells, tissues or organs that are found in multicellular organisms[GO].

muscle tissue [UBERON_0002385]

Muscle tissue is a contractile tissue made up of actin and myosin fibers[GO]. Vertebrate muscle is categorized into three major muscle types defined by their structural and functional properties: skeletal, cardiac and smooth. In Dmel the counterparts are somatic, heart/cardiac and visceral. Here we take a cell type based approach.

muscle tissue of terminal part of digestive tract [UBERON_0016886]

Any muscle tissue of the distalmost portion of the digestive tract.

muscular coat [UBERON_0006660]

A region of muscle in many organs in the vertebrate body, adjacent to the submucosa membrane. It is responsible for gut movement such as peristalsis.

muscular coat of digestive tract [UBERON_0018261]

A muscular coat that is part of a digestive tract.

musculature [UBERON_0001015]

A subdivision of the muscular system corresponding to a subdisivision of an organism.

musculature of back [UBERON_0004469]

Any collection of muscles that is part of a back [Automatically generated definition].

musculature of body [UBERON_0000383]

The subdivision of the musculoskeletal system that consists of all the muscles of the body[VSAO, modified].

musculature of face [UBERON_0004473]

Any collection of muscles that is part of a face.

musculature of neck [UBERON_0004465]

Any collection of muscles that is part of a neck [Automatically generated definition].

musculature of pectoral complex [UBERON_0014793]

Any collection of muscles that is part of a pectoral complex. The pectoral complex comprises the pectoral girdle and the associated limb or fin.

musculature of pectoral girdle [UBERON_0004471]

A subdivision of the musculature of the body in the pectoral girdle region. Includes pectoral and shoulder muscles.

musculature of pelvic complex [UBERON_0014792]

Any collection of muscles that is part of a pelvic complex. The pelvic complex comprises the pelvic girdle and the associated limb or fin.

musculature of pelvic girdle [UBERON_0004470]

Any collection of muscles that is part of a pelvic girdle [Automatically generated definition].

musculature of thorax [UBERON_0004464]

Any collection of muscles that is part of a thorax [Automatically generated definition].

musculature of trunk [UBERON_0004479]

Any collection of muscles that is part of a trunk [Automatically generated definition].

musculoskeletal system [UBERON_0002204]

Anatomical system that consists of the muscular and skeletal systems.

myelencephalon [UBERON_0005290]

The posterior part of the developing vertebrate hindbrain or the corresponding part of the adult brain composed of the medulla oblongata and a portion of the fourth ventricle; as well as the glossopharyngeal nerve (CN IX), vagus nerve (CN X), accessory nerve (CN XI), hypoglossal nerve (CN XII), and a portion of the vestibulocochlear nerve (CN VIII).[BTO,WP].

myelencephalon sulcus limitans [UBERON_0009578]

A sulcus limitans of neural tube that is part of a future myelencephalon.

myocardium [UBERON_0002349]

The middle layer of the heart, comprised mainly of striated cardiac muscle fibers.

myocardium of anterior wall of left ventricle [UBERON_0036290]

[is part of; myocardium of anterior wall of left ventricle; left ventricle myocardium]

myocardium of anterior wall of right ventricle [UBERON_0036291]

[myocardium of anterior wall of right ventricle; is part of; right ventricle myocardium]

myocardium of atrium [UBERON_0002302]

The atrial part of middle layer of the heart, comprised of involuntary muscle.

myocardium of ventricle [UBERON_0001083]

Muscular layer of the cardiac ventricle composed of a compact myocardial layer surrounding the trabecular layer.

myocoele [UBERON_0012054]

The cavity within a myotome.

myotome [UBERON_0003082]

A transitional population of migrating mesenchymal cells that derive from somites and that will become muscle cells.

neck [UBERON_0000974]

An organism subdivision that extends from the head to the pectoral girdle, encompassing the cervical vertebral column.

neck blood vessel [UBERON_0003502]

A blood vessel that is part of a neck [Automatically generated definition].

neck bone [UBERON_0003458]

A bone that is part of a neck [Automatically generated definition].

neck cartilage [UBERON_0003601]

A cartilage that is part of a neck [Automatically generated definition].

neck connective tissue [UBERON_0003568]

A portion of connective tissue that is part of a neck [Automatically generated definition].

neck nerve [UBERON_0003430]

A nerve that is part of a neck [Automatically generated definition].

nerve [UBERON_0001021]

An enclosed, cable-like bundle of axons in the peripheral nervous system originating in a nerve root in the central nervous system (or a condensed nervous structure) connecting with peripheral structures.

nerve of abdominal segment [UBERON_0003825]

A nerve that is part of an abdominal segment of trunk [Automatically generated definition].

nerve of cervical vertebra [UBERON_0000962]

The cervical nerves are the spinal nerves from the cervical vertebrae. Although there are seven cervical vertebrae (C1-C7), there are eight cervical nerves (C1-C8). All nerves except C8 emerge above their corresponding vertebrae, while the C8 nerve emerges below the C7 vertebra. (In the other portions of the spine, the nerve emerges below the vertebra with the same name. Dorsal (posterior) distribution includes the greater occipital (C2) and third occipital (C3). Ventral (anterior) distribution includes the cervical plexus (C1-C4) and brachial plexus (C5-C8) [WP,unvetted]. Innervates: sternohyoid muscle, sternothyroid muscle, omohyoid muscle[WP]

nerve of head region [UBERON_0011779]

A nerve that is part of a head.

nerve of thoracic segment [UBERON_0003824]

A nerve that is part of a thorax [Automatically generated definition].

nerve of trunk region [UBERON_0003439]

A nerve that is part of the trunk region of the body (not to be confused with a nerve trunk).

nervous system [UBERON_0001016]

The nervous system is an organ system containing predominantly neuron and glial cells. In bilaterally symmetrical organism, it is arranged in a network of tree-like structures connected to a central body. The main functions of the nervous system are to regulate and control body functions, and to receive sensory input, process this information, and generate behavior [CUMBO].

nervous system cell part layer [UBERON_0022303]

Single layer of a laminar structure, identified by different density, arrangement or size of cells and processes arranged in flattened layers or lamina[CUMBO].

neural crest [UBERON_0002342]

A specialized region of ectoderm found between the neural ectoderm (neural plate) and non-neural ectoderm and composed of highly migratory pluripotent cells that delaminate in early embryonic development from the dorsal neural tube and give rise to an astounding variety of differentiated cell types[MP]. Gene notes: Many factors and genes, such as Pax3 (Tremblay et al., 1995), slug (Nieto et al., 1994), AP-2 (Zhang et al., 1996; Schorle et al., 1996), and Wnt-1/3a (Ikeya et al., 1997) are expressed in the dorsal most region of the neural tube, and have been shown to be involved in the generation of neural crest cells.

neural crest-derived structure [UBERON_0010313]

An anatomical structure that develops from the neural crest.

neural fold [UBERON_0005062]

One of the two elevated edges of the neural groove[GO,MP].

neural groove [UBERON_0005061]

The median dorsal longitudinal groove formed in the embryo by the neural plate after the appearance of the neural folds.

neural keel [UBERON_0007135]

An intermediate stage (between the neural plate and neural rod) during the early segmentation period in the morphogenesis of the central nervous system primordium; the keel is roughly triangular shaped in cross section.

neural nucleus [UBERON_0000125]

A spatially aggregated collection of nerve cell bodies in the CNS, consisting of one or more subpopulations that share cell type, chemical phenotype, and connections, and including nearby cells that share the same cell type, chemical phenotype, and connections. (CUMBO).

neural plate [UBERON_0003075]

A region of embryonic ectodermal cells that lie directly above the notochord. During neurulation, they change shape and produce an infolding of the neural plate (the neural fold) that then seals to form the neural tube[XAO]. The earliest recognizable dorsal ectodermal primordium of the central nervous system present near the end of gastrulation before infolding to form the neural keel; consists of a thickened pseudostratified epithelium[ZFA].

neural rod [UBERON_0005068]

A solid rod of neurectoderm derived from the neural keel. The neural rod is roughly circular in cross section. Neural rod formation occurs during primary neurulation in teleosts[GO]. An intermediate stage in the development of the central nervous system present during the segmentation period; the neural rod is roughly cylindrical in shape, forms from the neural keel, and is not yet hollowed out into the neural tube[ZFIN].

neural tissue [UBERON_0003714]

Portion of tissue in the nervous system which consists of neurons and glial cells, and may also contain parts of the vasculature.

neural tube [UBERON_0001049]

In the developing vertebrate, the neural tube is the embryo’s precursor to the central nervous system, which comprises the brain and spinal cord. The neural groove gradually deepens as the neural folds become elevated, and ultimately the folds meet and coalesce in the middle line and convert the groove into a closed tube, the neural tube or neural canal (which strictly speaking is the center of the neural tube), the ectodermal wall of which forms the rudiment of the nervous system. [WP,unvetted].

neural tube basal plate [UBERON_0004064]

The region of the mantle layer of the neural tube that lies ventral to the sulcus limitans and contains primarily motor neurons and interneurons.

neural tube derived brain [UBERON_0008823]

A brain that develops_from a neural tube.

neural tube lateral wall [UBERON_0005496]

Portion of tissue on the side of the lumen of the neural tube.

neural tube lumen [UBERON_0003842]

An anatomical space that surrounded_by a neural tube.

neural tube mantle layer [UBERON_0004061]

The layer of glia and differentiating neurons that forms as a second layer around the germinal neuroepithium; as this develops it comes to lie between the ventricular and marginal layers and includes the basal and alar plates. Develops into neurons and glia forming a gray matter layer.

neural tube marginal layer [UBERON_0004062]

The outermost layer of the neural tube that consists of axons from the developing mantle layer and will form the white matter.

neural tube ventricular layer [UBERON_0004060]

The layer of undifferentiated, proliferating cells that line the neural tube lumen that is the immediate transformation of the germinal neuroepithelium.

neurectoderm [UBERON_0002346]

Embryonic ectoderm that gives rise to nervous tissue.

neurocranium [UBERON_0001703]

Subdivision of skeletal system that surrounds and protects the brain. Includes the skull base, sensory capsules and the central part of the skull roof.

neurocranium bone [UBERON_0011164]

A bone that is part of a neurocranium [Automatically generated definition].

neuroendocrine gland [UBERON_0010133]

Any of the organized aggregations of cells that function as secretory or excretory organs and that release hormones in response to neural stimuli.

neurogenic placode [UBERON_0009955]

Cranial ectodermal placode with potential to develop into a component of the nervous system, such as nerves or ganglia.

neuromere [UBERON_0004731]

A transverse unitary subdivision of the neural tube that shares a common dorsoventral structure (floor, basal, alar, and roof plates), but each having differential molecular identities and fates; they comprise the secondary prosencephalon, diencephalon (prosomeres), the midbrain (mesomeres), and the hindbrain (rhombomeres).

neuron projection bundle [UBERON_0000122]

A fasciculated bundle of neuron projections (GO:0043005), largely or completely lacking synapses.

neuron projection bundle connecting eye with brain [UBERON_0004904]

A neuron projection bundle that connects the retina or its analog in the eye with the brain. This includes the vertebrate optic nerve (not truly a nerve) as well as analogous structures such as the Bolwig nerve in Drosophila. for the vertebrate-specific structure, see UBERON:0000941 (cranial nerve II)

neurula embryo [UBERON_0004455]

An embryo at the neurula stage.

neurula stage [UBERON_0000110]

Staged defined by the formation of a tube from the flat layer of ectodermal cells known as the neural plate. This will give rise to the central nervous system.

non-material anatomical boundary [UBERON_0000015]

A non-material anatomical entity of two dimensions. Anatomical boundaries are contiguous structures. Except in the case of abstracted fiat boundaries such as the midline plane of an organism, all 2D anatomical entities have a 3 dimensional projection. For example, the surface of the shell of a muscle has a distinct shape that projects into the third dimension. Note that boundaries are 2D structures. They have no thickness - and so can not be sites of gene expression or gene product localisation. For this, use boundary region terms.

non-neural ectoderm [UBERON_0005497]

Gene notes: One of the first genes to be expressed in nonneural ectoderm in amphioxus is BMP2/4 (Panopoulou et al. 1998). BMP2/4 homologues appear to have a very ancient role in distinguishing neural from nonneural ectoderm; in Drosophila as well as in amphioxus and vertebrates, BMP2/4 homologues are expressed in nonneural ectoderm and function in distinguishing neural from nonneural ectoderm (Francois & Bier, 1995 ; Sasai et al. 1995 ; Wilson & Hemmati-Brivanlou, 1995; Panopoulou et al. 1998). A change in level of BMP2/4 from very high in nonneural ectoderm to low in neural ectoderm appears to be a key factor in development of neural crest (Baker & Bronner-Fraser,1997a,1997b;Erickson&Reedy,1998;Marchantet al.1998 ;Selleck et al. 1998). [epidermal ectoderm; non-neural ectoderm; tissue; ectoderm-derived structure; material anatomical entity]

non-neurogenic ectodermal placode [UBERON_0011814]

Ectodermal placode that does not develop into a component of the nervous system.

nonsynovial joint [UBERON_0011134]

Joint in which the articulating bones or cartilages are connected by ligaments or fibrocartilage without an intervening synovial cavity. Examples: sagittal suture, inferior tibiofibular syndesmosis, costochondral joint, pubic symphysis.

noradrenergic cell groups [UBERON_8440015]

Collections of neurons in the central nervous system that have been demonstrated by histochemical fluorescence to contain the neurotransmitter norepinephrine (noradrenalin).

notochord [UBERON_0002328]

A flexible rod-shaped body found in embryos of all chordates. It is composed of cells derived from the mesoderm and defines the primitive axis of the embryo. In some chordates, it persists throughout life as the main axial support of the body, while in most vertebrates it becomes the nucleus pulposus of the intervertebral disc. The notochord is found ventral to the neural tube. The notochord appears early in embryogeny and plays an important role in promoting or organizing the embryonic development of nearby structures. In most adult chordates the notochord disappears or becomes highly modified. In some non-vertebrate chordates and fishes the notochord persists as a laterally flexible but incompressible skeletal rod that prevents telescopic collapse of the body during swimming[TOLWEB]

notochordal canal [UBERON_0013704]

A tubular passage that extends from the primitive pit into the head process during the early stages of embryonic development in mammals. It perforates the splanchnopleure layer so that the yolk sac and the amnion are connected temporarily.

notochordal fluid [UBERON_0013727]

Fluid contained within the notochordal canal. Distinct feature of coelocanths

notochordal plate [UBERON_0006267]

The notochordal plate is the dorsal part of the notochordal process when the ventral portion breaks down. It is continuous laterally with the endoderm that composes the roof of the primitive foregut and is in contact dorsally with the neural tube. The folding off of the notochordal plate gives rise to the notochord.

notochordal process [UBERON_0006268]

A midline cellular cord formed from the migration of mesenchymal cells from the primitive knot. The notochordal process grows cranially until it reaches the prechordal plate, the future site of the mouth. In this area the ectoderm is attached directly to the endoderm without intervening mesoderm. This area is known as the oropharyngeal membrane, and it will break down to become the mouth. At the other end of the primitive streak the ectoderm is also fused directly to the endoderm; this is known as the cloacal membrane (proctodeum), or primordial anus.

nuclear complex of neuraxis [UBERON_0007245]

Gray matter of the central nervous system which is a collection of clustered nuclei.

nucleus of brain [UBERON_0002308]

A neural nucleus that is part of the brain.

nucleus of medulla oblongata [UBERON_0007635]

A neural nucleus that is part of a medulla oblongata.

nucleus of midbrain tegmentum [UBERON_0007414]

A nucleus of brain that spans a midbrain tegmentum.

nucleus of spinal cord [UBERON_0011777]

A neural nucleus that is part of the spinal cord.

nucleus of superior olivary complex [UBERON_0007247]

Any of the nuclei that comprise the superior olivary complex (superior olive). This includes both the primary nuclei such as the lateral and medial nuclei, as well as periolivary nuclei.

occipital bone [UBERON_0001676]

The bone at the lower, posterior part of the skull.

occipital region [UBERON_0005902]

Anatomical cluster that is located in the posterior region of the cranium and forms the margin of the foramen magnum and occipital condyles.

ocular adnexa [UBERON_0035639]

The parts of the orbital region that are outside of the the eyeball, including the lacrimal apparatus, the extraocular muscles and the eyelids, eyelashes, eyebrows and the conjunctiva.

ocular refractive media [UBERON_0006312]

Body substance in a liquid or semi-solid state in the eyeball which serves to refract light.

ocular surface region [UBERON_0010409]

The integrated unit (of the eye) that consists of the conjunctiva, the corneal surface, and the ocular mucosal adnexa including the lid margins and the meibomian gland openings, the lacrimal glands and the lacrimal drainage system, all which are critical to maintain ocular surface integrity and provide protection from external antigens and pathogenic microorganisms.

olfactory system [UBERON_0005725]

A sensory system that is capable of olfaction (the sensory perception of smell).

ommatidium [UBERON_0000971]

The smallest morphological and functional unit of the compound eye that consists of a usually limited and often constant number of rhabdomeric photoreceptor cells, cornea-secreting epithelial cells, and interommatidial pigment cells, and may additionally contain crystalline cone cells.

optic choroid [UBERON_0001776]

Vascular layer containing connective tissue, of the eye lying between the retina and the sclera. The choroid provides oxygen and nourishment to the outer layers of the retina. Along with the ciliary body and iris, the choroid forms the uveal tract[WP].

optic cup [UBERON_0003072]

Multi-tissue structure that is comprised of neural and non-neural epithelial layers which will form the retina and retinal pigmented epithelium of the mature eye[ZFA]. double walled structured formed by expansion and invagination of the distal end of the optic vesicle that develops into the pigmented and sensory layers of the retina while the mouth of the optic cup eventually forms the pupil of the eye[MP].

optic eminence [UBERON_0004348]

The embryonic structure that gives rise to the corneal ectoderm.

optic eminence ectoderm [UBERON_0005234]

An ectoderm that is part of a optic eminence [Automatically generated definition].

optic eminence mesenchyme [UBERON_0005702]

Mesenchyme that is part of a optic eminence.

optic eminence surface ectoderm [UBERON_0005216]

An external ectoderm that is part of a optic eminence [Automatically generated definition].

optic neural crest [UBERON_0009920]

[migrating mesenchyme population; optic neural crest; is part of; mesenchyme derived from head neural crest]

optic vesicle [UBERON_0004128]

The optic vesicle is the evagination of neurectoderm that precedes formation of the optic cup[GO]. Portion of tissue that is comprised of neuroepitheium which has pinched off from the anterior neural keel and will form the optic cup[ZFA]. Genes: Six3, Pax6, Rx1 are expressed together in the tip of the neural plate [ISBN:9780878932504 “Developmental Biology”]. Development notes: During subsequent develop- ment, the optic vesicle invaginates and becomes a two-layered structure with an inner neural retina and outer retinal pigment epithelium. As soon as the developing optic vesicle makes contact with the overlying ectoderm, it induces the ectoderm to thicken and form the lens placode [PMID:16496288]

oral cavity [UBERON_0000167]

Anatomical cavity at the start of the digestive tract that that is enclosed by the mouth. The boundaries and contents vary depending on the species. In vertebrates, the boundaries are the oral opening, the cheeks, the palate and (if present) the palatoglossal arch - if this is not present then the mouth and pharynx form the oropharyngeal cavity. The buccal cavity contains the teeth, tongue and palate (when present).

oral epithelium [UBERON_0002424]

An epithelium that is part of the mouth and lines the oral cavity, typically stratified squamous, and may be para-, ortho- or non- keratinized. Primary barrier between oral environment and deeper tissues.

oral epithelium from ectoderm [UBERON_0011642]

An epithelium that develops_from a ectoderm and is part of a oral epithelium.

oral gland [UBERON_0010047]

Gland of the epithelium lining the oral cavity. The most common are the salivary glands.

oral lamina propria [UBERON_0005334]

A lamina propria that is part of a mucosa of oral region.

oral opening [UBERON_0000166]

The orifice that connects the mouth to the exterior of the body.

orbital region [UBERON_0004088]

The subdivision of the face that includes the eye (eyeball plus adnexa such as eyelids) and the orbit of the skull and associated parts of the face such as the eyebrows, if present.

organ [UBERON_0000062]

Anatomical structure that performs a specific function or group of functions [WP].

organ component layer [UBERON_0004923]

A part of a wall of an organ that forms a layer.

organ part [UBERON_0000064]

A multicellular structure that is a part of an organ.

organ subunit [UBERON_0000063]

A part of an organ that constitutes a distinct modular sub-unit. In some cases, the organ may also contain other sub-units of identical or similar types, in other cases this may be a distinct entity.

organ system subdivision [UBERON_0011216]

A subdivision of an anatomical system.

organism subdivision [UBERON_0000475]

Anatomical structure which is a subdivision of a whole organism, consisting of components of multiple anatomical systems, largely surrounded by a contiguous region of integument.

organism substance [UBERON_0000463]

Material anatomical entity in a gaseous, liquid, semisolid or solid state; produced by anatomical structures or derived from inhaled and ingested substances that have been modified by anatomical structures as they pass through the body.

organogenesis stage [UBERON_0000111]

A stage at which the ectoderm, endoderm, and mesoderm develop into the internal organs of the organism.

orifice [UBERON_0000161]

Anatomical conduit that connects two adjacent body spaces (or a body space with the space surrounding the organism)[FMA,modified].

orifice of skull [UBERON_0036253]

[is part of; skull orifice; orifice of skull]

outer epithelium [UBERON_0007376]

The epidermis is the entire outer epithelial layer of an animal, it may be a single layer that produces an extracellular material (e.g. the cuticle of arthropods) or a complex stratified squamous epithelium, as in the case of many vertebrate species[GO].

outflow part of left atrium [UBERON_0005966]

An outflow tract of atrium that is part of a left atrium.

outflow part of left ventricle [UBERON_0005956]

Anterosuperior fibrous portion of the left ventricle that connects to the ascending aorta.

outflow part of right atrium [UBERON_0005965]

Outflow part of atrium which consists of wall and cavity of the outflow part of right atrium and the tricuspid valve.[FMA].

outflow part of right ventricle [UBERON_0005953]

Anteriosuperior, smooth-walled portion of the cavity of the right ventricle, beginning at the supraventricular crest and terminating in the pulmonary trunk.

outflow tract [UBERON_0004145]

The outflow tract is the portion of the heart through which blood flows into the arteries.

outflow tract aortic component [UBERON_0005338]

An outflow tract that is part of a aorta.

outflow tract endothelium [UBERON_0004699]

An endothelium that is part of a outflow tract [Automatically generated definition].

outflow tract myocardium [UBERON_0004265]

A myocardium that is part of a outflow tract [Automatically generated definition].

outflow tract of atrium [UBERON_0005946]

An outflow tract that is part of a cardiac atrium.

outflow tract of ventricle [UBERON_0005337]

A ventricular outflow tract is a portion of either the left ventricle or right ventricle of the heart through which blood passes in order to enter the great arteries. The right ventricular outflow tract (RVOT) is an infundibular extension of the ventricular cavity which connects to the pulmonary artery. The left ventricular outflow tract (LVOT), which connects to the aorta, is nearly indistinguishable from the rest of the ventricle[WP].

outflow tract pericardium [UBERON_0004271]

A pericardium that is part of a outflow tract [Automatically generated definition].

outflow tract pulmonary component [UBERON_0005339]

[outflow tract pulmonary component]

outflow tract septum [UBERON_0004142]

The outflow tract septum is a partition in the outflow tract.

outflow tract smooth muscle [UBERON_0004246]

A portion of smooth muscle tissue that is part of a outflow tract [Automatically generated definition].

ovarian artery [UBERON_0001190]

An artery that supplies an ovary.

ovarian vein [UBERON_0001145]

A vein that carries deoxygenated blood from its corresponding ovary to inferior vena cava or one of its tributaries.

ovary [UBERON_0000992]

The gonad of a female organism which contains germ cells.

ovary septum [UBERON_0003218]

Septum that divides the ovary, the basal portion of a carpel or group of fused carpels, that encloses the ovule(s)[GO].

ovary stroma [UBERON_0006960]

The stroma of the ovary is a peculiar soft tissue, abundantly supplied with blood vessels, consisting for the most part of spindle-shaped cells with a small amount of ordinary connective tissue. These cells have been regarded by some anatomists as unstriped muscle cells, which, indeed, they most resemble; by others as connective-tissue cells. On the surface of the organ this tissue is much condensed, and forms a layer composed of short connective-tissue fibers, with fusiform cells between them. The stroma of the ovary may contain interstitial cells resembling those of the testis.

oviduct [UBERON_0000993]

A tube or collection of tubes in an animal from the ovaries to the outside of the body.

oviduct epithelium [UBERON_0004804]

An epithelium that is part of a oviduct [Automatically generated definition].

oviduct smooth muscle [UBERON_0004245]

A portion of smooth muscle tissue that is part of a fallopian tube [Automatically generated definition].

pair of lungs [UBERON_0000170]

The pair of anatomical structures comprised of a left lung and right lung.

paired limb/fin [UBERON_0004708]

An appendage that is part of an appendage girdle complex.

paired limb/fin bud [UBERON_0004357]

An outgrowth on the lateral trunk of the embryo that develops into a limb or paired fin. The limb/fin bud is divided into ectoderm and mesenchyme[cjm, modified from MP]. Genes: In limb buds of chick and mouse, Shh expression is activated as soon as there is a morphological bud, whereas in S. canicula fin buds, consistent with reported data in other cartilaginous fishes, Shh is transcribed late in fin development[PMID:17187056]

paired limb/fin bud mesenchyme [UBERON_0010329]

Mesenchyme that is part of a limb/fin bud.

paired limb/fin cartilage [UBERON_0007389]

A cartilage tissue that is part of a paired limb or fin.

paired limb/fin field [UBERON_0005732]

A ring of cells capable of forming a limb or paired fin[Gilbert,modified].

paired limb/fin skeleton [UBERON_0011582]

The collection of all skeletal elements in an individual limb or fin.

panarthropod head [UBERON_6000004]

[panarthropod head; is part of; Panarthropoda]

pancreas [UBERON_0001264]

An endoderm derived structure that produces precursors of digestive enzymes and blood glucose regulating enzymes[GO].

pancreas dorsal primordium [UBERON_0010375]

[is part of; pancreas primordium; dorsal pancreas; pancreas dorsal primordium; presumptive structure; has potential to develop into]

pancreas left lobe [UBERON_0015280]

A pancreatic lobule that is in_the_left_side_of a exocrine pancreas.

pancreas mesenchyme [UBERON_0009752]

The embryonic connective tissue made up of loosely aggregated mesenchymal cells, supported by interlaminar jelly, that gives rise to the developing pancreas.

pancreas primordium [UBERON_0003921]

Embryonic structure that develops into pancreatic bud.

pancreas right lobe [UBERON_0015281]

A pancreatic lobule that is in_the_right_side_of a exocrine pancreas.

pancreas secretion [UBERON_0004795]

A secretion that is part of a pancreas [Automatically generated definition].

pancreas ventral primordium [UBERON_0010376]

[is part of; ventral pancreas; pancreas ventral primordium; pancreas primordium; presumptive structure; has potential to develop into]

pancreatic acinus [UBERON_0001263]

The secretory units of the exocrine pancreas, where fluid containing digestive enzymes is produced; consists of a group of secretory cells surrounding a luminal space that connects to the pancreatic duct.

pancreatic artery [UBERON_0039261]

[pancreas; systemic artery; splenic artery; branching part of; pancreatic artery; supplies]

pancreatic duct [UBERON_0007329]

A duct that collects and carries secretions of the exocrine pancreas to the intestine.

pancreatic epithelial bud [UBERON_0003922]

The embryonic pancreas develops from two separate anlagen in the foregut epithelium, one dorsal and two ventral pancreatic buds[PMID].

pancreatic juice [UBERON_0000326]

Pancreatic juice is slightly alkaline and contains numerous enzymes and inactive enzyme precursors including alpha-amylase, chymotrypsinogen, lipase, procarboxypeptidase, proelastase, prophospholipase A2, ribonuclease, and trypsinogen. Its high concentration of bicarbonate ions helps to neutralize the acid from the stomach.

pancreatic lobule [UBERON_0007324]

A dense accumulation of exocrine glands in the pancreas often surrounding islets of Langerhans.

paracardial fat [UBERON_0035815]

Fat deposits in the mediastinum outside the parietal pericardium .

paraxial mesoderm [UBERON_0003077]

The paraxial mesoderm is the mesoderm located bilaterally adjacent to the notochord and neural tube[GO].

parenchyma [UBERON_0000353]

Functional part of an organ in the body. This is in contrast to the stroma, which refers to the structural tissue of organs, being exactly, connective tissues.

parenchyma of central nervous system [UBERON_0005158]

The functional tissue of the central nervous system consisting of neurons and glial cells.

parenchyma of pancreas [UBERON_0001978]

[pancreatic parenchyma; is part of; pancreas parenchyma; parenchyma of pancreas]

parenchyma of spleen [UBERON_1000024]

A parenchyma that is part of a spleen.

parietal peritoneum [UBERON_0001366]

The outer layer of peritoneum that is attached to the abdominal and pelvic walls.

parietal pleura [UBERON_0002400]

The outer serous membrane of the pulmonary pleural. the part of the pleura external to the visceral pleura. It lines the inner surface of the chest wall, covers the diaphragm, and is reflected over the structures occupying the middle of the thorax

parietal serous membrane [UBERON_0022351]

Serous membrane layer that lines to a body cavity.

parietal serous pericardium [UBERON_0002408]

Parietal serous membrane which is part of the pericardium and forms the outer layer of the pericardial sac.

pectinate line [UBERON_0006574]

The pectinate line (anocutaneous line, dentate line, anorectal junction) is a line which divides the upper 2/3rds and lower 1/3rd of the anal canal. Developmentally, this line represents the hindgut-proctodeum junction. It is an important anatomical landmark, and several distinctions can be made based upon the location of a structure relative to this line:.

pectoral appendage [UBERON_0004710]

Paired appendage that consists of the anterior appendicular skeleton and associated soft and hard tissues, but excludes the pectoral girdle and its associated soft and hard tissues.

pectoral appendage apical ectodermal ridge [UBERON_0005421]

An apical ectodermal ridge that is part of a pectoral appendage bud.

pectoral appendage blood vessel [UBERON_0007300]

A blood vessel that is part of a pectoral appendage.

pectoral appendage bud [UBERON_0005419]

A limb bud that develops into a forelimb or pectoral fin. at this time we have no need to name a more specific ‘pectoral fin bud’ class, but we may in future

pectoral appendage bud ectoderm [UBERON_0003372]

An unilaminar epithelium that surrounds a pectoral appendage bud.

pectoral appendage bud mesenchyme [UBERON_0003413]

Mesenchyme that is part of a pectoral appendage bud.

pectoral appendage cartilage tissue [UBERON_0007390]

A cartilage tissue that is part of a pectoral appendage.

pectoral appendage field [UBERON_0005729]

A limb/fin field that has the potential to develop into a pectoral appendage bud mesenchyme.

pectoral appendage muscle [UBERON_0014794]

Any muscle organ that is part of a pectoral appendage (forelimb or pectoral fin).

pectoral appendage musculature [UBERON_0007269]

Any collection of muscles that is part of a pectoral appendage.

pectoral appendage skeleton [UBERON_0007272]

Skeletal subdivision consisting of the anterior appendicular limb skeleton, excluding the pectoral girdle.

pectoral appendage vasculature [UBERON_0007302]

A vasculature that is part of a pectoral appendage.

pectoral complex [UBERON_0010708]

Appendage girdle complex that when present, encompasses the pectoral appendicular skeleton and the pectoral girdle.

pectoral complex muscle [UBERON_0010891]

A muscle of a pectoral girdle, pectoral fin or anterior limb.

pectoral girdle bone [UBERON_0007829]

A bone that is part of a pectoral girdle region.

pectoral girdle region [UBERON_0001421]

An organism subdivision that includes the pectoral girdle skeleton and associated soft tissue. Note that this includes both the skeletal elements and associated tissues (integument, muscle, etc). Examples: There are only two instances in an organism, right and left pectoral girdle regions.

pectoral girdle skeleton [UBERON_0007831]

A subdivision of a limb or fin skeleton consisting of bones which connects the upper limb or fin to the axial skeleton on each side. It consists of the clavicle and scapula in humans and, in those species with three bones in the pectoral girdle, the coracoid. Some mammalian species (e.g. the dog and the horse) have only the scapula. In humans, the only joints between the shoulder girdle and axial skeleton are the sternoclavicular joints on each side. No joint exists between each scapula and the rib cage; instead the muscular connection between the two permits relatively great mobility of the shoulder girdle in relation to the pelvic girdle. In those species having only the scapula, no joint exists between the forelimb and the thorax, the only attachment being muscular[WP]. Examples: There are only two instances, right and left pectoral girdle skeletons.

pelvic appendage [UBERON_0004709]

Paired appendage that consists of the posterior appendicular skeleton and associated soft and hard tissues, but excludes the pelvic girdle and its associated soft and hard tissues.

pelvic appendage apical ectodermal ridge [UBERON_0005422]

An apical ectodermal ridge that is part of a pelvic appendage bud.

pelvic appendage bud [UBERON_0005420]

A limb bud that develops into a hindlimb or pelvic fin. at this time we have no need to name a more specific ‘pelvic fin bud’ class, but we may in future

pelvic appendage bud ectoderm [UBERON_0003371]

An unilaminar epithelium that surrounds a pelvic appendage bud.

pelvic appendage bud mesenchyme [UBERON_0003412]

Mesenchyme that is part of a pelvic appendage bud.

pelvic appendage cartilage tissue [UBERON_0007391]

A cartilage tissue that is part of a pelvic appendage.

pelvic appendage field [UBERON_0005730]

A limb/fin field that has the potential to develop into a pelvic appendage bud mesenchyme.

pelvic appendage muscle [UBERON_0014795]

Any muscle organ that is part of a pelvic appendage (hindlimb or pelvic fin).

pelvic appendage musculature [UBERON_0007270]

Any collection of muscles that is part of a pelvic appendage.

pelvic appendage skeleton [UBERON_0007273]

The collection of all skeletal elements in a pelvic appendage region.

pelvic cavity [UBERON_0008203]

The part of the ventral body cavity that is within the pelvis.

pelvic complex [UBERON_0010709]

Appendage girdle complex that when present, encompasses the pelvic appendicular skeleton and the pelvic girdle.

pelvic complex muscle [UBERON_0010890]

Muscles of the pelvic girdle, hindlimb or pelvic fin.

pelvic girdle bone/zone [UBERON_0007830]

A bone element or fused bone that is part of pelvic girdle.

pelvic girdle region [UBERON_0001271]

The organism subdivision that includes the pelvic girdle skeleton and associated soft tissue. Note that this includes both the skeletal elements and associated tissues (integument, muscle, etc). Examples: There are only two instances in an organism, right and left pelvic girdle regions.

pelvic girdle skeleton [UBERON_0007832]

Skeletal subdivision consisting of a set of bones linking the axial series to the hindlimb zeugopodium and offering anchoring areas for hindlimb and caudal musculature.

pelvic region element [UBERON_0005179]

An organ or element that is part of the pelvic region. Examples: reproductive organs (in some organisms), urinary bladder, bones of the pelvis.

pelvic region of trunk [UBERON_0002355]

The lower segment of the trunk, inferioposterior to the abdomen proper, in the transition area between the trunk and the lower limbs.

pelvic vein [UBERON_0036268]

[pelvic vein; drains; pelvic region of trunk]

pelvis blood vessel [UBERON_0003520]

A blood vessel that is part of a pelvis [Automatically generated definition].

pelvis connective tissue [UBERON_0003594]

A portion of connective tissue that is part of a pelvis [Automatically generated definition].

pelvis nerve [UBERON_0003444]

A nerve that is part of a pelvis [Automatically generated definition].

pericardial cavity [UBERON_0001074]

A potential space between the visceral and parietal layers of the pericardium.

pericardial fat [UBERON_0035814]

The sum of epicardial and paracardial fat deposits.

pericardial fluid [UBERON_0002409]

Transudate contained in the pericardial cavity.[FMA].

pericardial sac [UBERON_0002406]

A double-walled sac containing the heart and the roots of the great vessels.

pericardium [UBERON_0002407]

The combination of pericardial sac (a double-walled sac containing the heart and the roots of the great vessels) plus fibrous pericardium.

perichordal bone [UBERON_0008909]

Bone element that is adjacent to the notochord.

periderm [UBERON_0003055]

A temporary epithelium that derives from the outer layer of the ectdoerm and is shed once the inner layer differentiates to form a true epidermis.

peripheral nervous system [UBERON_0000010]

A major division of the nervous system that contains nerves which connect the central nervous system (CNS) with sensory organs, other organs, muscles, blood vessels and glands.

peritoneal cavity [UBERON_0001179]

Anatomical cavity bounded by visceral and parietal peritoneum.

peritoneal cavity mesothelium [UBERON_0005669]

A mesothelium that is part of a peritoneal cavity.

peritoneal fluid [UBERON_0001268]

Transudate contained in the peritoneal cavity.

peritoneal mesentery [UBERON_0007826]

Mesentery that is located in the peritoneum.

peritoneal sac [UBERON_0035820]

A serous sac that is the aggregate of the peritoneum and the peritoneal cavity, located in the abdominal cavity.

peritoneum [UBERON_0002358]

A serous membrane that lines the peritoneal cavity[VHOG,modified].

pharyngeal arch [UBERON_0002539]

One of a series of paired bulges that develop along the lateral walls of the foregut. The pharyngeal arches have developmental contributions from endoderm, mesoderm, and neural crest cells and are separated by anterior lateral endoderm out-pockets known as pharyngeal pouches.

pharyngeal arch 1 [UBERON_0004362]

The first of the series of pharyngeal arches that develop into jaw bones or their homologs, and their associated nerves and arteries.

pharyngeal arch 4 [UBERON_0003115]

Contributes to development of the cartilage of the larynx, laryngeal, pharyngeal, and soft palate muscles, superior parathyroid gland, and C-cells of the thymus.

pharyngeal arch 6 [UBERON_0003117]

The 6th pharyngeal arch. contributes to the development of the sternocleidomastoid and trapezius muscles.

pharyngeal arch artery [UBERON_0004363]

One of a series of paired embryological vascular structures formed within a pharyngeal arch; in the adult, some of these vessels give rise to the great vessels[MP].

pharyngeal arch artery 1 [UBERON_0003118]

The vessels formed within the first pair of branchial arches in embryogenesis.

pharyngeal arch artery 4 [UBERON_0003121]

The vessels formed within the fourth pair of branchial arches in embryogenesis. proximal right subclavian

pharyngeal arch artery 6 [UBERON_0003123]

The vessels formed within the sixth pair of branchial arches in embryogenesis.

pharyngeal arch cartilage [UBERON_0011004]

A cartilage element that is part of a splanchnocranium.

pharyngeal arch mesenchymal region [UBERON_0009494]

A portion of mesenchymal tissue associated with an individual pharyngeal arch.

pharyngeal arch mesenchyme from head mesenchyme [UBERON_0010360]

Mesenchyme that develops_from a head mesenchyme from mesoderm and is part of a entire pharyngeal arch associated mesenchyme. Partially implements https://github.com/obophenotype/uberon/wiki/The-neural-crest NC meeting scheme

pharyngeal arch mesenchyme from neural crest [UBERON_0010359]

Mesenchyme that develops_from a neural crest and is part of a entire pharyngeal arch associated mesenchyme. Partially implements https://github.com/obophenotype/uberon/wiki/The-neural-crest NC meeting scheme

pharyngeal arch system [UBERON_0008814]

A transient embryonic complex that comprises the pharyngeal arches, bulges of tissues of mesoderm and neural crest derivation through which pass nerves and pharyngeal arch arteries. The arches are separated internally by pharyngeal pouches, evaginations of foregut endoderm, and externally by pharyngeal clefts, invaginations of surface ectoderm. The development of the system ends when the stucture it contributes to are forming, which may include (depending on species) the thymus, thyroid, parathyroids, maxilla, mandible, aortic arch, cardiac outflow tract, external and middle ear[GO,modified].

pharyngeal ectoderm [UBERON_0016545]

The external part of the developing pharynx that is made of ectoderm. During vertebrate development, pockets form in pharyngeal ectoderm between the pharyngeal arches.

pharyngeal epithelium [UBERON_0003351]

An epithelium that is part of a pharynx [Automatically generated definition].

pharyngeal gland [UBERON_0003295]

Racemose mucous glands beneath the mucous membrane of the pharynx.

pharyngeal mucosa [UBERON_0000355]

A mucosa that is part of a pharynx [Automatically generated definition].

pharyngeal region of foregut [UBERON_0009145]

[pharyngeal region of foregut; is part of; developing anatomical structure; anatomical entity]

pharyngeal vasculature [UBERON_0007303]

A vasculature that is part of a chordate pharynx.

pharynx [UBERON_0006562]

The pharynx is the part of the digestive system immediately posterior to the mouth[GO].

phlegm [UBERON_0016552]

Mucus produced in the respiratory tract.

photoreceptor array [UBERON_0005388]

An array of photoreceptors and any supporting cells found in an eye.

phrenic artery [UBERON_0002057]

An artery that supplies the diaphragm.

phrenic nerve [UBERON_0001884]

A nerve that arises from the caudal cervical nerves and is primarily the motor nerve of the diaphragm but also sends sensory fibers to the pericardium.

phrenic vein [UBERON_0012193]

The veins that run parallel to the phrenic arteries which include the two superior and two inferior phrenic veins.

pigment epithelium of eye [UBERON_0007625]

Epithelial layer of the retina, ciliary body, or iris composed of cells containing pigment granules.

pit [UBERON_0016566]

An roughly circular indentation in a surface.

placenta [UBERON_0001987]

Organ of metabolic interchange between fetus and mother, partly of embryonic origin and partly of maternal origin[GO]. The fetal portion of the placenta is known as the villous chorion. The maternal portion is known as the decidua basalis. The two portions are held together by anchoring villi that are anchored to the decidua basalis by the cytotrophoblastic shell. Marsupials possess only a rudimentary yolk-type placenta, with reduced nutrient and oxygen exchanging capabilities.

placenta blood vessel [UBERON_0022358]

A blood vessel of the placenta.

placenta labyrinth [UBERON_0003946]

The placental layers where embryonic blood vessels are surrounded by trophoblast cells and maternal blood.

placental artery [UBERON_8480007]

An artery that is part of the placenta.

placental artery endothelium [UBERON_8480005]

An endothelium that is part of the placental artery.

placental blood [UBERON_8470000]

Blood located in the placenta.

placental labyrinth blood vessel [UBERON_0004183]

The embryonic vessels grow through the layer to come in close contact with the maternal blood supply.

placental labyrinth vasculature [UBERON_0003970]

Blood vessels of the layer of the placenta where embryonic and maternal blood vessels interdigitate.

placental labyrinth villous [UBERON_0010005]

The vascularized and branched structures arising from the rodent trophoblast-derived epithelium that allow an increase its surface area for the efficient exchange of nutrients and wastes between the maternal and fetal circulation.

placental vein [UBERON_8480008]

A vein that is part of the placenta.

pleura [UBERON_0000977]

The invaginated serous membrane that surrounds the lungs (the visceral portion) and lines the walls of the pleural cavity (parietal portion).

pleural cavity [UBERON_0002402]

The fluid-filled cavity that lies between the visceral and parietal pleurae.

pleural fluid [UBERON_0001087]

Transudate contained in the pleural cavity.

pleural sac [UBERON_0009778]

A serous sac that has the pleura and the pleural cavity as parts.

pleuroperitoneal canal [UBERON_0006279]

Each of the canals that links the peritoneal cavity and the caudal part of a pleural cavity.

pleuroperitoneal canal lumen [UBERON_0014704]

An anatomical space that is enclosed by a pleuroperitoneal canal.

pleuroperitoneal membrane [UBERON_0009133]

A fold of tissue which extends into the peritoneal cavity of the developing embryo and participates in the separation of the pleural and peritoneal cavities.

pons [UBERON_0000988]

The part of the central nervous system lying between the medulla oblongata and the midbrain, ventral to the cerebellum.

pontine raphe nucleus [UBERON_0002047]

The pontine raphe nucleus is one of the raphe nuclei. It is located in the pontine tegmentum. [WP,unvetted].

pontine tegmentum [UBERON_0003023]

Dorsal portion of the pons, containing cranial nervee nuclei, ascending and descending tracts and reticular nuclei. It is continuous with the reticular formation of the medulla (Carpenter, A Core Text of Neuroanatomy, 3rd ed, 1985, pg 133).

portal lobule [UBERON_0001171]

The triangular region on the periphery of the liver lobules that contain a bile duct and a terminal branch of the hepatic artery and portal vein, and may also include a lymphatic vessel.

portal system [UBERON_0005806]

In the circulatory system of animals, a portal venous system occurs when a capillary bed drains into another capillary bed through veins, without first going through the heart. Both capillary beds and the blood vessels that connect them are considered part of the portal venous system. They are relatively uncommon as the majority of capillary beds drain into veins which then drain into the heart, not into another capillary bed. Portal venous systems are considered venous because the blood vessels that join the two capillary beds are either veins or venules. Examples of such systems include the hepatic portal system and the hypophyseal portal system. Unqualified, ‘portal venous system’ often refers to the hepatic portal system. For this reason, ‘portal vein’ most commonly refers to the hepatic portal vein[WP].

portal triad [UBERON_0001279]

A multi-organ-part structure that consists of three vessels of the portal lobule including the bile duct, a terminal branch of the hepatic artery and portal vein, and may also include a lymphatic vessel.

portal vein [UBERON_0002017]

A vein that conducts blood from the digestive organs, spleen, pancreas, and gallbladder to the liver[BTO].

post-embryonic notochord [UBERON_0036242]

A notochord that has persisted beyond the embryonic stage.

post-embryonic organism [UBERON_0009953]

A multicellular organism that existence_starts_with a post-embryonic stage.

post-embryonic stage [UBERON_0000092]

stage succeeding embryo, including mature structure

post-juvenile adult stage [UBERON_0000113]

The stage of being a sexually mature adult animal.

postcranial axial cartilage [UBERON_2001457]

Cartilage which is part of the axial skeleton.

postcranial axial skeletal system [UBERON_0011138]

Subdivision of the skeletal system which consists of the postcranial axial skeleton plus associated joints.

postcranial axial skeleton [UBERON_0002090]

The postcranial subdivision of skeleton structural components forming the long axis of the vertebrate body; in Danio, consisting of the notochord, vertebrae, ribs, supraneurals, intermuscular bones, and unpaired median fins; in human consists of the bones of the vertebral column, the thoracic cage and the pelvis[ZFA+FMA]. previous some AOs had used the term ‘axial skeleton’ to include the skull. This is being resolved (see tracker items above). Status: MA - fixed.

posterior neural tube [UBERON_0003076]

[chordal neural plate; develops from; anatomical entity; embryonic structure; is part of; posterior neural tube]

posterior region of body [UBERON_0000154]

[Bilateria; posterior region of body; only in taxon; organism subdivision]

posterior segment of eyeball [UBERON_0001802]

Any of the parts of the eye that lie in back of, or dorsal to, the lens (but not inclusive).

posterior stroma of cornea [UBERON_0003953]

The posterior segment of the lamellated connective tissue layer of the cornea.

posterior surface of head [UBERON_0006056]

[anatomical surface region; posterior surface of head; in_posterior_side_of; is part of]

posterior vena cava [UBERON_0001072]

A vein that carries deoxygenated blood from the lower half of the body into the right atrium of the heart.

pre-cartilage condensation [UBERON_0005866]

A delimited region of dense mesenchyme within looser mesenchyme whose cells are committed to become chondroblasts.

pre-chordal neural plate [UBERON_0003056]

The portion of neural plate anterior to the mid-hindbrain junction.

pre-muscle condensation [UBERON_0005865]

[pre muscle mass; muscle structure; muscle precursor cell; pre-muscle condensation; has part; developing mesenchymal condensation; premuscle mass; composed_primarily_of; has potential to develop into]

prechordal mesoderm [UBERON_0034878]

The area of axial mesoderm that develops into the prechordal plate.

prechordal plate [UBERON_0003063]

A horseshoe-shaped thickening of the endoderm at the cranial (rostral) end of the primitive streak formed by the involution of Spemann’s organizer cells which, together with the notochord, induces the formation of the neural plate from the overlying ectodermal cells and contributes mesodermal type cells to the surrounding tissue.

preplacodal ectoderm [UBERON_2007013]

Non neural ectoderm that surrounds the presumptive neural plate and gives rise to neurogenic placodes.

presomitic mesoderm [UBERON_0003059]

Unsegmented field of paraxial mesoderm present posterior to the most recently formed somite pair, from which somites will form.

presumptive blood [UBERON_0006596]

[presumptive blood; future blood; has potential to develop into; presumptive structure]

presumptive ectoderm [UBERON_0006601]

Presumptive structure of the blastula that will develop into ectoderm.

presumptive endocardium [UBERON_0007280]

A presumptive structure that has the potential to develop into a endocardium.

presumptive endoderm [UBERON_0006595]

Presumptive structure of the blastula that will develop into endoderm.

presumptive ganglion [UBERON_0003869]

A presumptive structure that has the potential to develop into a ganglion.

presumptive gut [UBERON_0007026]

[primordial gut; future digestive tube; existence starts during; has developmental contribution from; endoderm; future digestive tract; primordial digestive tube; mesoderm; presumptive structure; embryonic digestive tube; presumptive gut; digestive tract; primitive gut; future gut; gastrula stage; has potential to develop into]

presumptive hindbrain [UBERON_0007277]

The rhombencephalon (or hindbrain) is a developmental categorization of portions of the central nervous system in vertebrates. The rhombencephalon can be subdivided in a variable number of transversal swellings called rhombomeres. In the human embryo eight rhombomeres can be distinguished, from caudal to rostral: Rh7-Rh1 and the isthmus (the most rostral rhombomere). A rare disease of the rhombencephalon, ‘rhombencephalosynapsis’ is characterized by a missing vermis resulting in a fused cerebellum. Patients generally present with cerebellar ataxia. The caudal rhombencephalon has been generally considered as the initiation site for neural tube closure.

presumptive mesoderm [UBERON_0006603]

Presumptive structure of the blastula that will develop into mesoderm.

presumptive midbrain [UBERON_0009616]

A presumptive structure that has the potential to develop into a midbrain.

presumptive midbrain hindbrain boundary [UBERON_0007281]

Embryonic structure that gives rise to the midbrain hindbrain boundary.

presumptive neural plate [UBERON_0007284]

A presumptive structure that has the potential to develop into a neural plate.

presumptive neural retina [UBERON_0005425]

Portion of tissue that is the inner layer of the optic cup and will become the neural retina.

presumptive paraxial mesoderm [UBERON_0007285]

The part of the blastula that has the potential to develop into a paraxial mesoderm.

presumptive segmental plate [UBERON_0007282]

A presumptive structure that has the potential to develop into a presomitic mesoderm.

presumptive sinus venosus [UBERON_0007278]

Portion of tissue that is part of the heart tube and will become the sinus venosus.

presumptive structure [UBERON_0006598]

Portion of embryonic tissue determined by fate mapping to become a structure.

primary circulatory organ [UBERON_0007100]

A hollow, muscular organ, which, by contracting rhythmically, keeps up the circulation of the blood or analogs[GO,modified]. Gene notes: Bmp, Nkx, Gata

primary heart field [UBERON_0004140]

A specific region of the lateral mesoderm that will form the primary beating heart tube. In mammals the primary heart field gives rise to the left ventricle.

primary subdivision of cranial skeletal system [UBERON_0011159]

[primary subdivision of cranial skeletal system; is part of; subdivision of skeletal system]

primary subdivision of skull [UBERON_0011158]

The skull can be divided into two: the neurocranium and the facial skeleton.

primitive heart tube [UBERON_0005498]

Multi-tissue structure that arises from the heart rudiment and will become the heart tube.

primordial vasculature [UBERON_0014903]

A portion of tissue that will develop into vasculature.

primordium [UBERON_0001048]

Primordia are populations of contiguous cells that are morphologically distinct and already correspond in extent to a later organ/tissue[FBbt, Hartenstein, V. (2004)].

processual entity [UBERON_0000000]

An occurrent [span:Occurrent] that exists in time by occurring or happening, has temporal parts and always involves and depends on some entity.

proctodeum [UBERON_0000931]

Inward fold on the surface of the embryonic ectoderm that develops into an ectodermal terminal part of the digestive tract.

proepicardium [UBERON_0004160]

An embryonic group of progenitor cells that forms from an outpouching of the septum transversum near the venous pole of the heart and gives rise to the epicardium.

proliferating neuroepithelium [UBERON_0034706]

An epithelium that is undergoing proliferation to provide large numbers of neuronal cells.

proper hepatic artery [UBERON_0015480]

The hepatic artery proper (also proper hepatic artery), arises from the common hepatic artery and runs alongside the portal vein and the common bile duct to form the portal triad. The hepatic artery proper gives off a small supraduodenal artery to the duodenal bulb. Then the right gastric artery comes off and runs to the left along the lesser curvature of the stomach to meet the left gastric artery, which is a branch of the celiac trunk. It subsequently gives off the cystic artery, which feeds the gallbladder, before bifurcating into the right and left hepatic arteries. Of note, the right and left hepatic arteries may demonstrate variant anatomy. A replaced right hepatic artery may arise from the superior mesenteric artery (SMA) and a replaced left hepatic artery may arise from the left gastric artery.

protuberance [UBERON_0010188]

A roughly circular bulge in a surface.

proximal-distal subdivision of colon [UBERON_0000168]

A section dividing a colon along a proximal-distal axis.

proximo-distal subdivision of respiratory tract [UBERON_0000072]

An section of a respiratory tract.

pseudostratified ciliated columnar epithelium [UBERON_0010499]

Epithelium composed of a single layer of cells, appearing as layered because the column-shaped cells vary in height so the nuclei are at different levels. The basal portions of all the cells are in contact with the basement membrane. It lines the respiratory system and the male reproductive tract. The cilia in the respiratory tract are motile, while the stereocilia in the male reproductive tract are immobile.

pseudostratified columnar epithelium [UBERON_0010498]

A simple columnar epithelium that looks stratified but is not, because its cells are arranged with their nuclei at different levels.

pulmonary artery [UBERON_0002012]

An artery that carries deoxygenated blood from heart to the lungs. They are the only arteries (other than umbilical arteries in the fetus) that carry deoxygenated blood..

pulmonary artery endothelium [UBERON_0005317]

An pulmonary artery endothelium is an epithelium that lines the pulmonary artery[GO].

pulmonary capillary [UBERON_0016405]

A capillary that is part of a lung.

pulmonary collagen fibril [UBERON_0011862]

The connective tissue bundles in the extracellular matrix of pulmonary tissue that are composed of collagen, and play a role in tissue strength and elasticity.

pulmonary lobule [UBERON_0010368]

The smallest anatomical unit of the lung, measuring 0.50 to 2.00 cm in diameter. Each lobule is composed of 4-8 terminal bronchioles and their distal alveolar ducts and sacs. The lobules are separated by fibrous interlobular septa.

pulmonary trunk [UBERON_0002333]

An arterial trunk which is continuous with the heart and branches into the pulmonary arteries.

pulmonary vascular system [UBERON_0008886]

The part of the cardiovascular system consisting of all pulmonary arteries and all pulmonary veins.

pulmonary vein [UBERON_0002016]

Pulmonary veins are blood vessels that transport blood from the lungs to the heart[GO].

Purkinje fiber network [UBERON_8000009]

A collection of Purkinje fibers that receives signals from the right and left bundle branches and innervates the ventricular cardiac muscle. The Purkinje fiber network creates synchronized contractions of the heart ventricles.

pyloric antrum [UBERON_0001165]

The area at the bottom of the stomach on the caudal side of the pyloric canal that contains gastrin-producing G cells, which stimulate acid production, and the luminal pH-sensitive population of somatostatin-producing D cells.

pyloric canal [UBERON_0008858]

The short narrow part of the stomach extending from the pyloric antrum to the pyloric sphincter.

pyloric gastric gland [UBERON_0008861]

The gastric glands in the pyloric region of the stomach; the pyloric glands secrete mucin, which coats the stomach and protects it, and hormones such as gastrin and enkephalin[MP].

pyloric region epithelium [UBERON_0005637]

An epithelium that is part of a pylorus.

pyloric sphincter [UBERON_0001202]

A strong ring of smooth muscle at the end of the pyloric canal which lets food pass from the stomach to the duodenum. It receives sympathetic innervation from the celiac ganglion[WP].

pylorus [UBERON_0001166]

The stomach tissue region surrounding and controlling the distal outlet of the stomach, which opens into the duodenum.

raphe nuclei [UBERON_0004684]

The raphe nuclei are thin plates of cells in and immediately adjacent to the sagittal plane. we treat NR obscurus, NR magnus etc as parts of the raphe nuclei. This is consistent with treatment in FMA, where the class is ‘set of raphe nuclei’

rectal artery [UBERON_0035039]

[hemorrhoidal artery; rectal artery; rectum; supplies]

rectal lumen [UBERON_0009670]

An anatomical space that surrounded_by a rectum.

rectal salt gland [UBERON_0004757]

An evagination of the terminal portion of the intestine that is capable of secreting high concentrations of excess sodium chloride.

rectosigmoid junction [UBERON_0036214]

An anatomical junction that is between the sigmoid colon and rectum.

rectum [UBERON_0001052]

The terminal portion of the intestinal tube, terminating with the anus.

rectum smooth muscle tissue [UBERON_0018112]

Any portion of smooth muscle tissue that is part of the rectum.

red bone marrow [UBERON_0000361]

The red vascular substance consisting of connective tissue and blood vessels, containing primitive blood cells, macrophages, megakaryocytes, and fat cells. Red marrow is found in the cavities of many bones. It manufactures and releases leukocytes and erythrocytes into the bloodstream.

regional part of brain [UBERON_0002616]

Anatomical divisons of the brain according to one or more criteria, e.g. cytoarchitectural, gross anatomy. Parts may be contiguous in 3D or not, e.g., basal ganglia.

regional part of nervous system [UBERON_0000073]

Any part or collection of parts of the central or peripheral nervous system. Parts may span both CNS and PNS.

regional part of spinal cord [UBERON_0001948]

A multi-tissue structure that is part of a spinal cord.

regular connective tissue [UBERON_0007845]

Connective tissue, which consists of fibroblasts, the intercellular matrix of which contains a regular network of collagen and elastic fiber bundles. Examples: bone (tissue), cartilage (tissue), dense regular connective tissue.

renal system [UBERON_0001008]

The renal system in an anatomical system that maintains fluid balance and contributes to electrolyte balance, acid/base balance, and disposal of nitrogenous waste products..

replacement bone [UBERON_0012075]

Bone that forms as a replacement of another structural tissue.

replacement element [UBERON_0010522]

Skeletal element that forms as a replacement or substitution of another element or tissue.

reproductive gland [UBERON_0003937]

Any of the organized aggregations of cells that function as secretory or excretory organs and are associated with reproduction.

reproductive gland secretion [UBERON_0022293]

A portion of organism substance that is secreted by a reproductive gland.

reproductive organ [UBERON_0003133]

An organ involved in reproduction.

reproductive structure [UBERON_0005156]

Any anatomical structure that is part of the reproductive system.

reproductive system [UBERON_0000990]

Anatomical system that has as its parts the organs concerned with reproduction.

reproductive system mucosa [UBERON_0019042]

[reproductive system mucosa; reproductive structure; is part of; genital mucosa]

respiration organ [UBERON_0000171]

Organ that functions in gaseous exchange between an organism and its environment. In plants, microorganisms, and many small animals, air or water makes direct contact with the organism’s cells or tissue fluids, and the processes of diffusion supply the organism with dioxygen (O2) and remove carbon dioxide (CO2). In larger animals the efficiency of gaseous exchange is improved by specialized respiratory organs, such as lungs and gills, which are ventilated by breathing mechanisms.

respiratory airway [UBERON_0001005]

An airway through which respiratory air passes in organisms.

respiratory muscle [UBERON_0014398]

Muscle that is part of the respiratory system.

respiratory primordium [UBERON_0008947]

[anatomical entity; respiratory system; is part of; respiratory primordium; endoderm of foregut; has potential to develop into]

respiratory primordium epithelium [UBERON_0036072]

[epithelial sac; is part of; endo-epithelium; develops from; endodermal part of digestive tract; respiratory primordium epithelium; foregut epithelium; early pharyngeal endoderm; digestive tract diverticulum]

respiratory primordium mesenchyme [UBERON_0036073]

[develops from; splanchnopleure; is part of; respiratory primordium mesenchyme; material anatomical entity; respiratory primordium associated mesenchyme; mixed endoderm/mesoderm-derived structure]

respiratory system [UBERON_0001004]

Functional system which consists of structures involved in respiration.

respiratory system arterial blood vessel [UBERON_0003643]

An arterial blood vessel that is part of a respiratory system [Automatically generated definition].

respiratory system arterial endothelium [UBERON_0004848]

An endothelium of artery that is part of a respiratory system [Automatically generated definition].

respiratory system arterial smooth muscle [UBERON_0012416]

[arterial system smooth muscle; respiratory system blood vessel smooth muscle; respiratory system arterial smooth muscle; respiratory system arterial blood vessel; is part of]

respiratory system arteriole [UBERON_0003495]

An arteriole that is part of a respiratory system [Automatically generated definition].

respiratory system artery [UBERON_0003469]

An artery that is part of a respiratory system [Automatically generated definition].

respiratory system basement membrane [UBERON_0015329]

A basement membrane of epithelium that is part of a respiratory system.

respiratory system blood vessel [UBERON_0003504]

A blood vessel that is part of a respiratory system [Automatically generated definition].

respiratory system blood vessel endothelium [UBERON_0004702]

A blood vessel endothelium that is part of a respiratory system [Automatically generated definition].

respiratory system blood vessel smooth muscle [UBERON_0004297]

A blood vessel smooth muscle that is part of a respiratory system [Automatically generated definition].

respiratory system capillary [UBERON_0003526]

A capillary that is part of a respiratory system [Automatically generated definition].

respiratory system capillary endothelium [UBERON_0003489]

An endothelium of capillary that is part of a respiratory system [Automatically generated definition].

respiratory system connective tissue [UBERON_0003570]

A portion of connective tissue that is part of a respiratory system [Automatically generated definition].

respiratory system elastic tissue [UBERON_0003611]

An elastic tissue that is part of a respiratory system [Automatically generated definition].

respiratory system epithelium [UBERON_0004807]

An epithelium that is part of a respiratory system [Automatically generated definition].

respiratory system fluid/secretion [UBERON_0006538]

A portion of organism substance that secreted_by a respiratory system.

respiratory system gland [UBERON_0036225]

Any gland that is part os the respiratory system.

respiratory system lamina propria [UBERON_0004779]

A lamina propria that is part of a respiratory system [Automatically generated definition].

respiratory system mucosa [UBERON_0004785]

The mucous membrane lining the respiratory tract.

respiratory system mucus [UBERON_0016553]

Any mucus produced by a mucosae of the respiratory system. This includes the mucus produced in the nasal cavity (nasal mucus) and mucus produced in the respiratory tract (phlegm).

respiratory system muscle [UBERON_0003831]

Any muscle organ that is part of a respiratory system [Automatically generated definition].

respiratory system skeletal muscle [UBERON_0004830]

A portion of skeletal muscle tissue that is part of a respiratory system [Automatically generated definition].

respiratory system smooth muscle [UBERON_0004225]

A portion of smooth muscle tissue that is part of a respiratory system [Automatically generated definition].

respiratory system submucosa [UBERON_0004777]

A submucosa that is part of a respiratory system [Automatically generated definition].

respiratory system venous blood vessel [UBERON_0003476]

A vein that is part of a respiratory system [Automatically generated definition].

respiratory system venous endothelium [UBERON_0004849]

An endothelium of vein that is part of a respiratory system [Automatically generated definition].

respiratory system venous smooth muscle [UBERON_0012418]

A smooth muscle tissue that is part of a respiratory system venous blood vessel.

respiratory system venule [UBERON_0003494]

A venule that is part of a respiratory system [Automatically generated definition].

respiratory tract [UBERON_0000065]

Anatomical structure that is part of the respiratory system. In mammals consists of upper and lower tracts.

respiratory tract epithelium [UBERON_0004802]

The pseudostratified ciliated epithelium that lines much of the conducting portion of the airway, including part of the nasal cavity and larynx, the trachea, and bronchi.

respiratory tube [UBERON_0000117]

A tube in the respiratory system. Examples: bronchus, bronchiole, trachea.

reticular formation [UBERON_0002275]

A composite substructure of the brainstem that consists of the midbrain reticular formation, the pontine reticular formation and the medullary reticular formation ( Carpenter-1983 ).

retina [UBERON_0000966]

The retina is the innermost layer or coating at the back of the eyeball, which is sensitive to light and in which the optic nerve terminates. Currently this class encompasses only verteberate AOs but could in theory also include cephalopod - we may want to make a more specific class for vertebrate retina. note that this class excludes ommatidial retinas, as the retina must be part of an eyeball. Use the parent class photoreceptor array / light-sensitive tissue for arthropods

retina blood vessel [UBERON_0003501]

A blood vessel that is part of a retina [Automatically generated definition].

retinal neural layer [UBERON_0003902]

The part of the retina that contains neurons and photoreceptor cells[GO].

rhombencephalon neural crest [UBERON_0003852]

A neural crest that has_potential_to_developmentally_contribute_to a hindbrain.

rhombomere [UBERON_0001892]

A segment of the developing hindbrain[ZFA]. In the vertebrate embryo, a rhombomere is a transiently divided segment of the developing neural tube, within the hindbrain region (a neuromere) in the area that will eventually become the rhombencephalon. The rhombomeres appear as a series of slightly constricted swellings in the neural tube, caudal to the cephalic flexure.[WP].

rhombomere boundary [UBERON_0018239]

A boundary delimiting a rhombomere.

rhombomere lateral wall [UBERON_0005501]

A neural tube lateral wall that is part of a rhombomere.

right atrium endocardium [UBERON_0009129]

Endocardium that is part of the right atrium.

right cardiac atrium [UBERON_0002078]

A cardiac atrium that is in the left side of the heart. It receives deoxygenated blood. In mammals, this comes from the superior and inferior vena cava and the coronary sinus, and pumps it into the right ventricle through the tricuspid valve.

right cardiac chamber [UBERON_0035554]

Any chamber of the right side of the heart.

right dorsal aorta [UBERON_0005622]

[is part of; right dorsal aorta; trunk blood vessel]

right eye [UBERON_0004549]

An eye that is part of a right side of organism [Automatically generated definition].

right hepatic artery [UBERON_0015482]

A hepatic artery that is part of a right lobe of liver.

right hepatic duct [UBERON_0001176]

The duct that drains bile from the right half of the liver and joins the left hepatic duct to form the common hepatic duct.

right hepatic vein [UBERON_0011956]

A hepatic vein that is part of a right lobe of liver.

right horn of sinus venosus [UBERON_0005092]

[sinus venosus right horn; right horn of sinus venosus; anatomical entity; embryonic structure; in_right_side_of]

right lobe of liver [UBERON_0001114]

The right lobe is much larger than the left; the proportion between them being as six to one. It occupies the right hypochondrium, and is separated from the left lobe on its upper surface by the falciform ligament; on its under and posterior surfaces by the left sagittal fossa; and in front by the umbilical notch. It is of a somewhat quadrilateral form, its under and posterior surfaces being marked by three fossæ: the porta and the fossæ for the gall-bladder and inferior vena cava, which separate its left part into two smaller lobes; the quadrate and caudate lobes. [WP,unvetted].

right lung [UBERON_0002167]

Lung which consists of the right upper lobe, middle lobe and right lower lobe.[FMA].

right lung associated mesenchyme [UBERON_0009603]

Mesenchyme that is part of a developing right lung.

right lung bronchiole [UBERON_0003538]

A bronchiole that is part of a right lung [Automatically generated definition].

right lung endothelium [UBERON_0005672]

An endothelium that is part of a right lung.

right lung terminal bronchiole [UBERON_0003540]

A terminal bronchiole that is part of a right lung [Automatically generated definition].

right ovarian vein [UBERON_0039856]

Ovarian vein, each instance of which is a tributary of some inferior vena cava that drains the right pampiniform plexus of some broad ligament.

right ovary [UBERON_0002118]

An ovary that is part of a right side of organism [Automatically generated definition].

right pelvic girdle region [UBERON_0011092]

A pelvic girdle region that is in the right side of a multicellular organism.

right pulmonary artery [UBERON_0001651]

The pulmonary artery that supplies the right lung.

right pulmonary vein [UBERON_0009032]

Vein that drains right lung and returns blood to the heart.

right side of back [UBERON_8000007]

Right part of the organism dorsal to a horizontal plane and bounded on one side by the same transverse plane.

right subclavian artery [UBERON_0001534]

The subclavian artery that supplies the right pectoral appendage.

right uterine tube [UBERON_0001302]

A fallopian tube that is part of a right side of organism [Automatically generated definition].

right ventricle myocardium [UBERON_0006567]

A myocardium that is part of a right ventricle of a heart.

right vitelline vein [UBERON_0005472]

A vitelline vein that is in the right side of a multicellular organism.

sac [UBERON_0009856]

[has quality; anatomical structure; saccular; diverticulum; sac; pouch]

salivatory nucleus [UBERON_0004133]

.

salt gland [UBERON_0004758]

An organ for excreting excess salts. It is found in elasmobranchs, seabirds, and some reptiles.[WP].

sclera [UBERON_0001773]

Opaque fibrous outer layer of the eyeball[ZFA,Kardong,WP]. Disease notes: implicated in rheumatoid arthritis.

scleral endothelium [UBERON_0010294]

An endothelium that is part of a sclera.

scleral mesenchyme [UBERON_0010299]

Mesenchyme surrounding the developing optic cup which develops into the sclera.

sclerotome [UBERON_0003089]

Ventral somitic compartment that is a precursor of the axial skeleton[XAO]. Sclerotomes eventually differentiate into the vertebrae and most of the skull. The caudal (posterior) half of one sclerotome fuses with the rostral (anterior) half of the adjacent one to form each vertebra. From their initial location within the somite, the sclerotome cells migrate medially towards the notochord. These cells meet the sclerotome cells from the other side to form the vertebral body. From this vertebral body, sclerotome cells move dorsally and surround the developing spinal cord, forming the vertebral arch[WP].

secondary heart field [UBERON_0009889]

A specific region of the lateral mesoderm that will form the majority of the mesodermal component of the right ventricle, arterial pole (outflow tract) and venous pole (inflow tract).

secretion of endocrine pancreas [UBERON_0004792]

A secretion that is part of a endocrine pancreas [Automatically generated definition].

secretion of exocrine gland [UBERON_0000456]

A portion of organism substance that is produced by exocrine glands.

secretion of exocrine pancreas [UBERON_0004793]

A secretion that is part of a exocrine pancreas [Automatically generated definition].

secretion of serous gland [UBERON_0007794]

Any fluid produced by a serous gland.

secretion of serous membrane [UBERON_0036244]

A transudate found in the serous sac.

section of aorta [UBERON_0005800]

Any portion of the aorta including the ascending and descending aorta, and aortic arch or a portion of the aortic orifice of the left ventricle.

segmental subdivision of hindbrain [UBERON_0004733]

An organ subunit that is part of a hindbrain [Automatically generated definition].

segmental subdivision of nervous system [UBERON_0004732]

Any segmental subdivision of a nervous system. Includes metameric developmental segments, such as vertebrates neuromeres.

sense organ [UBERON_0000020]

An organ that is capable of transducing sensory stimulus to the nervous system.

sensory epithelium [UBERON_0006934]

Simple columnar epithelium made up of cells specialized to serve as sensory cells for the reception of external stimuli, as the sensory cells of the cochlea, vestibule, nasal mucosa, and tongue.

sensory ganglion [UBERON_0001800]

The clusters of neurons in the somatic peripheral nervous system which contain the cell bodies of sensory nerve axons, interneurons and non-neuronal supporting cells.

sensory nerve [UBERON_0001027]

A nerve that transmits from sensory receptors on the surface of the body to the central nervous system.

sensory organ epithelium [UBERON_0019304]

[is part of; sensory organ epithelium; sense organ]

sensory system [UBERON_0001032]

Anatomical system that overlaps the nervous system and is responsible for receiving and processing sensory information.

septum [UBERON_0003037]

A wall, dividing a cavity or structure into smaller ones[WP]. general anatomical term in FMA

septum transversum [UBERON_0004161]

A thick plate of mesodermal tissue that occupies the space between the thoracic cavity and yolk stalk in the early embryo, forming a transverse partition partially separating the coelomic cavity into thoracic and abdominal portions. It gives rise to the central tendon of the diaphragm[VHOG].

serosa of cloaca [UBERON_0012483]

A serous membrane that is part of a cloaca [Automatically generated definition].

serosa of colon [UBERON_0003335]

A serous membrane that is part of a colon [Automatically generated definition].

serosa of duodenum [UBERON_0003336]

A serous membrane that is part of a duodenum [Automatically generated definition].

serosa of esophagus [UBERON_0001975]

A serous membrane that is part of a esophagus [Automatically generated definition].

serosa of infundibulum of uterine tube [UBERON_0007181]

A serous membrane that is part of a uterine tube infundibulum.

serosa of intestine [UBERON_0001243]

A serous membrane that is part of a wall of intestine [Automatically generated definition].

serosa of large intestine [UBERON_0001209]

A serous membrane that is part of a large intestine [Automatically generated definition].

serosa of rectum [UBERON_0003334]

A serous membrane that is part of a rectum [Automatically generated definition].

serosa of small intestine [UBERON_0001206]

A serous membrane that is part of a small intestine [Automatically generated definition].

serosa of stomach [UBERON_0001201]

The outermost layer of the stomach wall, consisting of layers of connective tissue continuous with the peritoneum.

serosa of uterine tube [UBERON_0012499]

A serous membrane that is part of a fallopian tube.

serosa of uterus [UBERON_0001297]

Outer serosa layer of the uterus.

serous acinus [UBERON_0013232]

The secretory unit of a serous gland. The acinar portion is composed of serous secreting cells.

serous cavity [UBERON_0035809]

[luminal space of; serous cavity; anatomical cavity; serous sac; immaterial entity]

serous gland [UBERON_0000409]

A gland in which the principal secretory cells are serous secreting cells.

serous membrane [UBERON_0000042]

Multi-tissue structure that is comprised of a secretory epithelial layer (mesothelium) and a connective tissue layer.

serous pericardium [UBERON_0002357]

Serous membrane which is divided into parietal and visceral serous pericardium.

serous sac [UBERON_0005906]

Organ with organ cavity, which has as parts a serous membrane and a serous cavity . Examples: pleural sac, pericardial sac, tendon sheath, bursa.[FMA]. See notes for serous membrane

sex-specific anatomical structure [UBERON_0014402]

A part of the body present only in a specific gender.

sexually immature organism [UBERON_0007021]

A multicellular organism that is at the juvenile stage.

sexually immature stage [UBERON_0000112]

[is part of; sexually immature stage; life cycle stage; juvenile stage; fully formed stage]

sigmoid colon [UBERON_0001159]

The part of the large intestine that is closest to the rectum and anus. It forms a loop that averages about 40 cm. in length, and normally lies within the pelvis, but on account of its freedom of movement it is liable to be displaced into the abdominal cavity.

sigmoid vein [UBERON_0039228]

[tributary of; drains; inferior mesenteric vein; sigmoid vein; sigmoid colon]

simple columnar epithelium [UBERON_0000485]

Unilaminar epithelium, which consists of a single layer of columnar cells. Examples: ciliated columnar epithelium, gastric epithelium, microvillus columnar epithelium.[FMA].

simple cuboidal epithelium [UBERON_0000484]

Unilaminar epithelium that consists of a single layer of cuboidal cells.

simple eye [UBERON_0000047]

An eye with one concave chamber. Note that ‘simple’ does not imply a reduced level of complexity or acuity.

simple squamous epithelium [UBERON_0000487]

Unilaminar epithelium which consists of a single layer of squamous cells. Examples: pulmonary alveolar epithelium, endothelium.[FMA].

sinoatrial node [UBERON_0002351]

The part of the cardiac conduction system that controls the timing of heart muscle contraction. It relays electrical signals to the AV node[GO]. Subdivision of conducting system of heart at the junction of the right atrium and the superior vena cava, around the sinoatrial nodal branch of right coronary artery and is continuous with the internodal tract[FMA]. WP:Heart states: “The SA node is found in all amniotes but not in more primitive vertebrates. In these animals, the muscles of the heart are relatively continuous and the sinus venosus coordinates the beat which passes in a wave through the remaining chambers. Indeed, since the sinus venosus is incorporated into the right atrium in amniotes, it is likely homologous with the SA node. In teleosts, with their vestigial sinus venosus, the main centre of coordination is, instead, in the atrium.”. Note however that ZFA has SA node.

sinus venosus [UBERON_0002063]

The sinus venosus is a large cardiac chamber at the inflow tract that receives venous blood from systemic circulation. precedes the atrium on the venous side of the chordate heart.

sinusoid [UBERON_0003909]

Small blood vessel similar to a capillary but with a fenestrated endothelium. Sinusoids are found in the liver, lymphoid tissue, endocrine organs, and hematopoietic organs such as the bone marrow and the spleen. Sinusoids found within terminal villi of the placenta are not comparable to these; they possess a continuous endothelium and complete basal lamina[WP].

sinusoidal space [UBERON_0014399]

An anatomical space that is enclosed by a sinusoid.

skeletal element [UBERON_0004765]

Organ consisting of skeletal tissue. Encompasses whole bones, fused bones, cartilaginious elements, teeth, dermal denticles.

skeletal element of eye region [UBERON_0010321]

A skeletal element that is part of a orbital region.

skeletal joint [UBERON_0000982]

Anatomical cluster that consists of two or more adjacent skeletal structures, which may be interconnected by various types of tissue[VSAO].

skeletal ligament [UBERON_0008846]

Dense regular connective tissue connecting two or more adjacent skeletal elements[VSAO,modified].

skeletal muscle connective tissue [UBERON_0004857]

A connective tissue that surrounds a skeletal muscle tissue.

skeletal muscle of trunk [UBERON_0001774]

A skeletal muscle organ that is part of the trunk region.

skeletal muscle organ [UBERON_0014892]

A muscle organ that consists of skeletal muscle tissue ensheathed in epimysium, that develops from myotome and that is innervated by some somatic motor neuron. Skeletal muscles are typically attached (via a tendon) to a bone but there are exceptions (e.g. intrinsic tongue muscles).

skeletal muscle tissue [UBERON_0001134]

Muscle tissue that consists primarily of skeletal muscle fibers.

skeletal muscle tissue of diaphragm [UBERON_0004495]

A portion of skeletal muscle tissue that is part of a diaphragm [Automatically generated definition].

skeletal muscle tissue of eye [UBERON_0003269]

A portion of skeletal muscle tissue that is part of a eye [Automatically generated definition].

skeletal muscle tissue of pharynx [UBERON_0003384]

A portion of skeletal muscle tissue that is part of a pharynx [Automatically generated definition].

skeletal muscle tissue of trunk [UBERON_0003898]

A portion of skeletal muscle tissue in the trunk.

skeletal musculature [UBERON_0018254]

[musculature of body; skeletal muscle organ; anatomical structure; composed_primarily_of; is part of; material anatomical entity; skeletal musculature]

skeletal musculature of head [UBERON_0004461]

Any collection of skeletal muscles that is part of a head [Automatically generated definition]. This class is restricted to skeletal muscles that attach to the cranial skeleton. This seems to be consistent with FMA and EMAPA usage. Note that by definition this excludes invertebrate head musculature. It corresponds to the individual muscle organ term UBERON:0002376

skeletal system [UBERON_0001434]

Anatomical system that is a multi-element, multi-tissue anatomical cluster that consists of the skeleton and the articular system.

skeletal tissue [UBERON_0004755]

A specialized form of connective tissue in which the extracellular matrix is firm, providing the tissue with resilience, and/or mineralized and that functions in mechanical and structural support.[VSAO]. Four classes of mineralized tissues are found in vertebrates: bone, cartilage, dentine, and enamel. We think of cartilage and bone as skeletal tissues and of enamel and dentine as dental tissues, but enamel and dentine arose evolutionarily together with bone as skeletal tissues in the dermal skeleton (exoskeleton) of early vertebrates. Scales and teeth of sharks are examples of dermal skeletal elements that are still composed of the three ancient components-enamel, dentine, and bone. Cartilage, on the other hand, provided the basis for the second vertebrate skeletal system, the endoskeleton (Smith and Hall, 1990; Hall, 1998a,b). some invertebrate skeletal tissues have surprisingly bone-like features. Examples include chondrocytes interconnected by cell processes in cephalopod cartilages (Cole and Hall, 2004a,b), and the calcium phosphate layer in the shells of brachiopods (Rodland et al., 2003). However, neither bone nor mineralized cartilage have been found in invertebrates. Editors notes: TODO - develops_from

skeleton [UBERON_0004288]

Anatomical cluster that consists of all the skeletal elements (eg., bone, cartilage, and teeth) of the body.

skeleton of left pelvic girdle [UBERON_0011091]

A skeleton of pelvic girdle that is part of a left pelvic girdle region.

skeleton of lower jaw [UBERON_0003278]

A subdivision of the skeleton that corresponds to the lower part of the mouth. The lower jaw skeleton includes the following elements, when present: lower jaw teeth, the mandible and other lower jaw bones, and Meckel’s cartilage.

skeleton of pectoral complex [UBERON_0012475]

The collection of all skeletal elements in a pectoral complex - i.e. the combination of free limb or fin plus pectoral girdle.

skeleton of pelvic complex [UBERON_0012476]

The collection of all skeletal elements in a pelvic complex - i.e. the combination of free limb or fin plus pelvic girdle.

skeleton of right pelvic girdle [UBERON_0011090]

A skeleton of pelvic girdle that is part of a right pelvic girdle region.

skin epidermis [UBERON_0001003]

The outer epithelial layer of the skin that is superficial to the dermis.

skin epithelium [UBERON_0019204]

Any region of epithelium that is part of a skin region.

skin gland [UBERON_0002419]

A gland that is part of a skin of body [Automatically generated definition].

skin mucous gland [UBERON_0004790]

A mucous gland that is part of the skin.

skin mucus [UBERON_0010152]

A mucous secretion that is produced by glands in the epidermis.

skin muscle [UBERON_0004253]

Any muscle organ that is part of a skin of body [Automatically generated definition].

skin of abdomen [UBERON_0001416]

A zone of skin that is part of an abdomen [Automatically generated definition].

skin of back [UBERON_0001068]

A zone of skin that is part of a back [Automatically generated definition].

skin of body [UBERON_0002097]

The organ covering the body that consists of the dermis and epidermis.

skin of face [UBERON_1000021]

A zone of skin that is part of the face.

skin of head [UBERON_0001084]

A zone of skin that is part of a head [Automatically generated definition].

skin of lip [UBERON_0001458]

A zone of skin that is part of a lip [Automatically generated definition].

skin of lower lip [UBERON_0018150]

A zone of skin that is part of a lower lip.

skin of neck [UBERON_0001417]

A zone of skin that is part of a neck [Automatically generated definition].

skin of pelvis [UBERON_0001415]

A zone of skin that is part of a pelvis [Automatically generated definition].

skin of thorax [UBERON_0001418]

A zone of skin that is part of a thorax [Automatically generated definition].

skin of trunk [UBERON_0001085]

A zone of skin that is part of a trunk [Automatically generated definition].

skin secretion [UBERON_0006535]

A portion of organism substance that secreted_by a zone of skin.

skull [UBERON_0003129]

Anatomical structure that is part of the head consisting entirely of cranium and mandible[WP].

small intestine [UBERON_0002108]

Subdivision of digestive tract that connects the stomach to the large intestine and is where much of the digestion and absorption of food takes place (with the exception of ruminants). The mammalian small intestine is long and coiled and can be differentiated histologically into: duodenum, jejunem, ileum[WP,cjm,Kardong].

small intestine arteriole [UBERON_8410004]

Arteriole of villus of small intestine.

small intestine smooth muscle [UBERON_0004239]

A portion of smooth muscle tissue that is part of a small intestine [Automatically generated definition].

small intestine venule [UBERON_8410001]

Venule of villus of small intestine.

smooth muscle layer in fatty layer of subcutaneous tissue [UBERON_0015783]

A smooth muscle tissue that is part of a hypodermis.

smooth muscle of esophagus [UBERON_0002112]

A portion of smooth muscle tissue that is part of a esophagus [Automatically generated definition].

smooth muscle of eye [UBERON_0003386]

Any of the striated muscles that move the eye and include: superior rectus, inferior rectus, medial rectus, lateral rectus, superior oblique, inferior oblique, retractor bulbi.

smooth muscle of trachea [UBERON_0003387]

A portion of smooth muscle tissue that is part of a trachea [Automatically generated definition].

smooth muscle sphincter [UBERON_0007521]

A ring of smooth muscle cells whose contraction closes the opening of the ring.

smooth muscle tissue [UBERON_0001135]

Muscle tissue which is unstriated, composed primarily of smooth muscle fibers surrounded by a reticulum of collagen and elastic fibers. Smooth muscle differs from striated muscle in the much higher actin/myosin ratio, the absence of conspicuous sarcomeres and the ability to contract to a much smaller fraction of its resting length[GO].

smooth muscle tissue of bronchiole [UBERON_0004515]

A portion of smooth muscle tissue that is part of a bronchiole [Automatically generated definition].

smooth muscle tissue of terminal bronchiole [UBERON_0004516]

A portion of smooth muscle tissue that is part of a terminal bronchiole [Automatically generated definition].

somatic layer of lateral plate mesoderm [UBERON_0004871]

Layer of lateral plate mesoderm that forms the future body wall - underlies the ectoderm[WP].

somatic nervous system [UBERON_0000012]

Part of peripheral nervous system that includes the somatic parts of the cranial and spinal nerves and their ganglia and the peripheral sensory receptors.

somatic sensory system [UBERON_0003942]

The sensory system for the sense of touch and pain.

somatopleure [UBERON_0004874]

A structure created during embryogenesis when the lateral mesoderm splits into two layers - the outer (or somatic) layer becomes applied to the inner surface of the ectoderm, and with it forms the somatopleure.[WP].

somite [UBERON_0002329]

Somites are spheres of epithelial cells that form sequentially along the anterior-posterior axis of the embryo through mesenchymal to epithelial transition of the presomitic mesoderm. When the somite becomes segmented from the segmental plate, it is composed of an epithelial sac enclosing mesenchymal somitocoel cells. Thereafter the somite differentiates into two parts, the ventro-medial mesenchymal sclerotome and the dorso-lateral epithelial dermomyotome. This change in the epithelial somite depends on surrounding tissue [PMID:15906248]

somite border [UBERON_0015178]

A region of somite adjacent to presomitic mesoderm.

somite boundary epithelium [UBERON_0015179]

Epithelium located in the intersomitic region.

space surrounding organism [UBERON_0013514]

The space that surrounds an organism.

sphincter muscle [UBERON_0004590]

A structure, usually a circular muscle, that normally maintains constriction of a natural body passage or orifice and which relaxes as required by normal physiological functioning.

sphincter of hepatopancreatic ampulla [UBERON_0004915]

Muscular valve that controls the flow of digestive juices (bile and pancreatic juice) through the ampulla of Vater into the second part of the duodenum. Relaxed by the hormone Cholecystokinin (CCK) via vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP).[WP].

sphincter pupillae [UBERON_0001607]

A sphincter muscle that is part of the iris.

spinal artery [UBERON_0002458]

Arteries that supply the spinal cord.

spinal cord [UBERON_0002240]

Part of the central nervous system located in the vertebral canal continuous with and caudal to the brain; demarcated from brain by plane of foramen magnum. It is composed of an inner core of gray matter in which nerve cells predominate, and an outer layer of white matter in which myelinated nerve fibers predominate, and surrounds the central canal. (CUMBO).

spinal cord column [UBERON_0016550]

[spinal cord column; central nervous system cell part cluster; is part of]

spinal cord mantle layer [UBERON_0009583]

[mantle layer lateral wall spinal cord; spinal cord lateral wall mantle layer; is part of; spinal cord mantle layer; neural tube mantle layer; future spinal cord]

spinal cord neural crest [UBERON_0003853]

A neural crest that has_potential_to_developmentally_contribute_to a spinal cord.

spinal cord neural plate [UBERON_0003854]

A neural plate that develops_from a future spinal cord.

spinal cord segment [UBERON_0005844]

[regional part of spinal cord; spinal cord segment; spinal neuromeres]

spinal cord sulcus limitans [UBERON_0009570]

A sulcus limitans of neural tube that is part of a future spinal cord.

spinal cord ventricular layer [UBERON_0034710]

[spinal cord lateral wall ventricular layer; spinal cord ventricular layer; neural tube ventricular layer; is part of; future spinal cord; neural tube lateral wall]

spinal nerve [UBERON_0001780]

The any of the paired peripheral nerves formed by the union of the dorsal and ventral spinal roots from each spinal cord segment[MP,modified].

spinal neuromere [UBERON_0014777]

A neuromere that is part of the presumptive spinal cord.

splanchnic layer of lateral plate mesoderm [UBERON_0004872]

Layer of lateral plate mesoderm that forms the circulatory system and future gut wall - overlies endoderm[WP].

splanchnic nerve [UBERON_0003715]

The major nerves supplying sympathetic innervation to the abdomen, including the greater, lesser, and lowest (or smallest) splanchnic nerves that are formed by preganglionic fibers from the spinal cord which pass through the paravertebral ganglia and then to the celiac ganglia and plexuses and the lumbar splanchnic nerves carry fibers which pass through the lumbar paravertebral ganglia to the mesenteric and hypogastric ganglia.

splanchnocranium [UBERON_0008895]

Subdivision of endoskeleton derived from pharyngeal arches.

splanchnopleure [UBERON_0004873]

A structure created during embryogenesis when the lateral mesoderm splits into two layers - the inner (or splanchnic) layer adheres to the endoderm, and with it forms the splanchnopleure[WP].

spleen [UBERON_0002106]

The organ that functions to filter blood and to store red corpuscles and platelets.

spleen primordium [UBERON_0006293]

A dense syncitial-like mesenchymal thickening in the dorsal mesogastrium[ISBN]. the embryonic connective tissue made up of loosely aggregated mesenchymal cells, supported by interlaminar jelly, that gives rise to the developing spleen[MP].

spleen smooth muscle [UBERON_0004238]

A portion of smooth muscle tissue that is part of a spleen [Automatically generated definition].

splenic arteriole [UBERON_0022292]

[splenic arteriole; is part of; abdomen blood vessel; spleen]

splenic artery [UBERON_0001194]

An artery that supplies the spleen.

splenic vein [UBERON_0003713]

A vein arising from the splenic trabecular vein in the hilum of the spleen that drains into the portal vein.

squamous epithelium [UBERON_0006914]

An epithelium characterised by its most superficial layer consisting of squamous epithelial cells.

stomach [UBERON_0000945]

An expanded region of the vertebrate alimentary tract that serves as a food storage compartment and digestive organ. A stomach is lined, in whole or in part by a glandular epithelium.

stomach glandular epithelium [UBERON_0006924]

A glandular epithelium that lines the stomach. The stomach’s glandular epithelium is characterized by the presence of gastric glands.

stomach glandular region [UBERON_0011953]

A region of the stomach that is lined with glandular epithelium.

stomach glandular region mucosa [UBERON_0006931]

Stomach mucosa that is lined with glandular epithelium and part of a stomach glandular region.

stomach lumen [UBERON_0013525]

The anatomical space that is enclosed by a stomach.

stomach muscularis externa [UBERON_0008856]

The smooth muscle layer of the stomach wall that functions to churn and mix food and gastric secretions as well as to move food along the digestive tract to the intestines.

stomach primordium [UBERON_0012172]

A primordium that has the potential to develop into a stomach.

stomach smooth muscle [UBERON_0004222]

A portion of smooth muscle tissue that is part of a stomach [Automatically generated definition].

stomach squamous epithelium [UBERON_0006921]

A squamous epithelium that is part of a stomach.

stomatodeum gland [UBERON_0005250]

A gland that is part of a stomodeum.

stomodeal lumen [UBERON_0009715]

An anatomical cavity that surrounded_by a stomodeum.

stomodeum [UBERON_0000930]

Anterior part of the embryonic digestive tract that develops into a mouth. The stomodeum includes as parts an invagination of the ectoderm and the stomodeal cavity.

stratified squamous epithelium [UBERON_0006915]

Multilaminar epithelium which consists of more than one layer of squamous cells only one layer of which is in contact with a basement membrane. Examples: keratinized stratified squamous epithelium, epithelium of wall of esophagus.[FMA].

striated border microvillus layer [UBERON_0012425]

A microvillus layer that is striated and found in the intestine.

striated muscle sphincter [UBERON_0007522]

A ring of striated muscle cells whose contraction closes the opening of the ring.

striated muscle tissue [UBERON_0002036]

Muscle tissue that contains fibers that are divided by transverse bands into striations.

stroma [UBERON_0003891]

Connective, non-functional supportive framework of a biological cell, tissue, or organ. Contrast with parenchyma.

stroma of bone marrow [UBERON_0007195]

The stroma of the bone marrow is all tissue not directly involved in the primary function of hematopoiesis. The yellow bone marrow belongs here, and makes the majority of the bone marrow stroma, in addition to stromal cells located in the red bone marrow. Yellow bone marrow is found in the Medullary cavity. Still, the stroma is indirectly involved in hematopoiesis, since it provides the hematopoietic microenvironment that facilitates hematopoiesis by the parenchymal cells. For instance, they generate colony stimulating factors, affecting hematopoiesis.

stroma of pancreas [UBERON_0018234]

A stroma that is part of a pancreas.

structure with developmental contribution from neural crest [UBERON_0010314]

An anatomical structure that has some part that develops from the neural crest.

subclavian artery [UBERON_0001533]

One of two laterally paired arteries that supplies the pectoral appendages, usually branching from the dorsal aorta.

subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue [UBERON_0014455]

Subcutaneous adipose tissue that is located in the abdominal region.

subcutaneous adipose tissue [UBERON_0002190]

A portion of adipose tissue that is part of the hypodermis, beneath the dermis.

subdivision of digestive tract [UBERON_0004921]

A proximal-distal subdivision of the digestive tract.

subdivision of head [UBERON_0001444]

[head subdivision; subdivision of head; organism subdivision; is part of; head region; region of head]

subdivision of organism along main body axis [UBERON_0011676]

A major subdivision of an organism that divides an organism along its main body axis (typically anterio-posterior axis). In vertebrates, this is based on the vertebral column.

subdivision of oviduct [UBERON_0013515]

A section through the tube or network of tubes that connects the ovaries to the outside of the body.

subdivision of skeletal system [UBERON_0000075]

Anatomical cluster consisting of the skeletal elements and articular elements that are part of an individual subdivision of the organism.

subdivision of skeleton [UBERON_0010912]

Anatomical cluster consisting of the skeletal elements (i.e. bone elements, cartilage elements, cartilage condensations) that are part of an individual subdivision of the organism. Excludes joints.

subdivision of trunk [UBERON_0009569]

[trunk subdivision; is part of; subdivision of trunk; organism subdivision]

subdivision of tube [UBERON_0013522]

[is part of; subdivision of tube; has part; anatomical space; organ part; anatomical wall]

subepicardial layer of epicardium [UBERON_0015128]

[mesothelium of serous pericardium; subepicardial connective tissue; is part of; subepicardial layer of epicardium]

submucosa [UBERON_0000009]

A layer of dense irregular connective tissue that lines organs and supports the mucosa, as well as joins the mucosa to the bulk of underlying smooth muscle. [WP,unvetted].

submucosa of anal canal [UBERON_0003329]

A submucosa that is part of an anal canal [Automatically generated definition].

submucosa of biliary tree [UBERON_0004938]

A submucosa that is part of a biliary tree [Automatically generated definition].

submucosa of body of stomach [UBERON_0004934]

A submucosa that is part of a body of stomach [Automatically generated definition].

submucosa of bronchiole [UBERON_0004952]

A submucosa that is part of a bronchiole [Automatically generated definition].

submucosa of bronchus [UBERON_0001957]

A submucosa that is part of a bronchus [Automatically generated definition].

submucosa of cloaca [UBERON_0012482]

A submucosa that is part of a cloaca [Automatically generated definition].

submucosa of colon [UBERON_0003331]

A submucosa that is part of a colon [Automatically generated definition].

submucosa of common bile duct [UBERON_0004939]

A submucosa that is part of a common bile duct [Automatically generated definition].

submucosa of common hepatic duct [UBERON_0004940]

A submucosa that is part of a common hepatic duct [Automatically generated definition].

submucosa of cystic duct [UBERON_0004926]

A submucosa that is part of a cystic duct [Automatically generated definition].

submucosa of digestive tract [UBERON_0018257]

Any portion of submucosa that lines the digestive tract.

submucosa of duodenum [UBERON_0003332]

A submucosa that is part of a duodenum [Automatically generated definition].

submucosa of esophagus [UBERON_0001972]

A submucosa that is part of a esophagus [Automatically generated definition].

submucosa of large intestine [UBERON_0001208]

A submucosa that is part of a large intestine [Automatically generated definition].

submucosa of left hepatic duct [UBERON_0004942]

A submucosa that is part of a left hepatic duct [Automatically generated definition].

submucosa of pharynx [UBERON_0004924]

The tissue underlying the tunica mucosa of the pharynx.

submucosa of pyloric antrum [UBERON_0004936]

A submucosa that is part of a pyloric antrum [Automatically generated definition].

submucosa of pylorus [UBERON_0004937]

A submucosa that is part of a pylorus [Automatically generated definition].

submucosa of rectum [UBERON_0003330]

The submucous layer of the wall of the rectum.

submucosa of right hepatic duct [UBERON_0004941]

A submucosa that is part of a right hepatic duct [Automatically generated definition].

submucosa of sigmoid colon [UBERON_0004932]

A submucosa that is part of a sigmoid colon [Automatically generated definition].

submucosa of small intestine [UBERON_0001205]

Submucosal tissue in the small intestines.

submucosa of stomach [UBERON_0001200]

The fibrous connective tissue layer beneath the stomach mucosa.

submucosa of trachea [UBERON_0002202]

A submucosa that is part of a trachea.

submucosa of uterine tube [UBERON_0011298]

The submucous layer of the wall of the uterine tube.

submucosal esophageal gland [UBERON_0008989]

One of the racemose glands in the walls of the esophagus that in humans are small and serve principally to lubricate the food but in some birds secrete a milky fluid on which the young are fed.

submucosal gland [UBERON_0011148]

Gland of the lamina epithelialis mucosae which perforate the lamina muscularis, with their adenomeres located in the submucosal connective tissue.

subserosa [UBERON_0012375]

A layer of tissue between the muscularis and serosa. Contains nerves, blood vessels, lymphatics and lymph nodes

substantia propria of cornea [UBERON_0001777]

The lamellated connective tissue of the cornea between the Bowman and Descemet membranes.

substantia propria of sclera [UBERON_0010295]

A stroma that is part of a sclera.

sulcus limitans of neural tube [UBERON_0005478]

A longitudinal groove in the neural tube wall that divides the neural tube into dorsal (alar) and ventral (basal) halves (dorsal receives input from sensory neurons, ventral effects motor functions); stretches from the mesencephalon caudad[TMD].

superficial cervical artery [UBERON_0001071]

It ascends beneath the anterior margin of the trapezius, distributing branches to it, and to the neighboring muscles and lymph glands in the neck, and anastomosing with the superficial branch of the descending branch of the occipital artery. The transverse cervical artery splits into two branches, a superficial one and a deep one[WP]

superficial vein [UBERON_0035550]

Any of the veins carrying deoxygenated blood from the subcutaneous tissue layers.

superior mesenteric vein [UBERON_0001138]

In anatomy, the superior mesenteric vein (SMV) is a blood vessel that drains blood from the small intestine. At its termination behind the neck of the pancreas, the SMV combines with the splenic vein to form the hepatic portal vein. The SMV lies to the right of the similarly named artery, the superior mesenteric artery, which originates from the abdominal aorta. [WP,unvetted].

superior olivary complex [UBERON_0002128]

A collection of brainstem nuclei that functions in multiple aspects of hearing and is an important component of the ascending and descending auditory pathways of the auditory system.

superior salivatory nucleus [UBERON_0002149]

Nucleus containing parasympathetic neurons giving rise to the parasympathetic division of the facial nerve, innervating the salivary glands (Brodal, Neurological Anatomy, 3rd ed., 1981, pg 703).

surface groove [UBERON_0006846]

A furrow or an incomplete tube.

surface of bone [UBERON_4200230]

An anatomical surface that is part of a bone.

surface of cartilage [UBERON_0008115]

An anatomical surface that is part of a cartilage element.

surface of epithelium [UBERON_0006677]

An anatomical boundary that adjacent_to a epithelium.

surface of eyeball [UBERON_0022288]

[anatomical surface region; surface of region of wall of eyeball; anatomical entity; bounding layer of; eyeball of camera-type eye; surface of eyeball]

surface structure [UBERON_0003102]

Anatomical structure that overlaps the outer epithelial layer and is adjacent to the space surrounding the organism.

sympathetic ganglion [UBERON_0001806]

A ganglion of the sympathetic nervous system. Examples: paravertebral and the prevertebral ganglia, which include the sympathetic chain ganglia, the superior, middle, and inferior cervical ganglia, and the aorticorenal, celiac, and stellate ganglia.

sympathetic nerve [UBERON_0034729]

[sympathetic nervous system; extends_fibers_into; is part of; sympathetic ganglion; sympathetic nerve]

sympathetic nervous system [UBERON_0000013]

The sympathetic nervous system is one of the two divisions of the vertebrate autonomic nervous system (the other being the parasympathetic nervous system). The sympathetic preganglionic neurons have their cell bodies in the thoracic and lumbar regions of the spinal cord and connect to the paravertebral chain of sympathetic ganglia. Innervate heart and blood vessels, sweat glands, viscera and the adrenal medulla. Most sympathetic neurons, but not all, use noradrenaline as a post-ganglionic neurotransmitter [GO].

synovial cavity of joint [UBERON_0007617]

An anatomical cavity that surrounded_by a synovial joint.

synovial fluid [UBERON_0001090]

Joint fluid is a transudate of plasma that is actively secreted by synovial cells.

synovial joint [UBERON_0002217]

Joint in which the articulating bones or cartilages are connected by an articular capsule which encloses a synovial membrane and a synovial cavity. Examples: Temporomandibular joint, knee joint.[FMA].

synovial joint of pectoral girdle [UBERON_0011108]

A synovial joint that is part of a pectoral girdle region.

synovial joint of pelvic girdle [UBERON_0011107]

A synovial joint that is part of a pelvic girdle region.

synovial membrane of synovial tendon sheath [UBERON_0011233]

Synovial sac which surrounds parts of one or more tendons. Examples: synovial tendon sheath of manual digit 2, radial bursa. Alternate def: A synovial sheath is a layer of a tendon sheath containing tendons in the hand and foot. They lie internal to the fibrous tendon sheaths. An example is the common synovial sheath for the flexor tendons. [Wikipedia:Synovial_sheath]

systemic arterial system [UBERON_0004571]

The part of the arterial system which carries oxygenated blood away from the heart to the body, and returns deoxygenated blood back to the heart.

systemic artery [UBERON_0004573]

An artery of the systemic circulation, which is the part of the cardiovascular system which carries oxygenated blood away from the heart, to the body, and returns deoxygenated blood back to the heart.

systemic vein [UBERON_0013140]

Any vein within the general circulation that transports blood back to the right atrium of the heart.

systemic venous system [UBERON_0004581]

The part of the venous system that drains the general body tissues[Kardong].

tendon [UBERON_0000043]

Dense regular connective tissue that connects muscle to bone[VSAO].

tendon collagen fibril [UBERON_0011864]

The connective tissue bundles in the extracellular matrix of tendon tissue that are composed of collagen, and play a role in tissue strength and elasticity.

tendon sheath [UBERON_0000304]

A layer of membrane around a tendon. It has 2 layers: synovial sheath + fibrous tendon sheath.

terminal bronchiole [UBERON_0002187]

The last conducting structure of non-respiratory bronchioles; after this point, the airways have alveoli in their walls.

terminal bronchiole epithelium [UBERON_0001958]

An epithelium that lines a terminal bronchiole.

terminal part of digestive tract [UBERON_0006866]

The distalmost portion of the digestive tract, derived from the hindgut, and terminating with the anus.

thoracic aorta [UBERON_0001515]

The part of the aorta that extends from the origin at the heart to the diaphragm, and from which arises numerous branches that supply oxygenated blood to the chest cage and the organs within the chest.

thoracic aorta smooth muscle tissue [UBERON_8480002]

A portion of smooth muscle tissue that is part of the thoracic aorta.

thoracic cavity [UBERON_0002224]

The part of the coelemic cavity lumen that is enclosed by the walls of the thorax.

thoracic cavity artery [UBERON_0003473]

An artery that is part of a thoracic cavity[cjm].

thoracic cavity blood vessel [UBERON_0003519]

A blood vessel that is part of a thoracic cavity [Automatically generated definition].

thoracic cavity connective tissue [UBERON_0003593]

A portion of connective tissue that is part of a thoracic cavity [Automatically generated definition].

thoracic cavity element [UBERON_0005178]

An organ or element that is in the thoracic cavity. Examples: lung, heart, longus colli.

thoracic cavity nerve [UBERON_0003443]

A nerve that is located in a thoracic cavity [Automatically generated definition].

thoracic cavity vein [UBERON_0003479]

A vein that is part of a thoracic cavity [Automatically generated definition].

thoracic nerve [UBERON_0003726]

The twelve spinal nerves on each side of the thorax. They include eleven INTERCOSTAL NERVES and one subcostal nerve. Both sensory and motor, they supply the muscles and skin of the thoracic and abdominal walls.

thoracic segment blood vessel [UBERON_0003834]

A blood vessel that is part of a thorax [Automatically generated definition].

thoracic segment bone [UBERON_0003827]

A bone that is part of a thorax [Automatically generated definition].

thoracic segment connective tissue [UBERON_0003837]

A portion of connective tissue that is part of a thorax [Automatically generated definition].

thoracic segment muscle [UBERON_0003830]

Any muscle organ that is part of a thorax [Automatically generated definition].

thoracic segment of trunk [UBERON_0000915]

Subdivision of trunk that lies between the head and the abdomen.

thoracic segment organ [UBERON_0005181]

An organ that part of the thoracic segment region. This region can be further subdividied chest and thoracic cavity regions.

thoracic skeleton [UBERON_0014477]

Subdivision of skeletal system that consists of all skeletal elements in the thoracic region of the trunk. In most vertebrates this is the rib cage and sternum.

thoracic spinal cord [UBERON_0003038]

The thoracic nerves are the spinal nerves emerging from the thoracic vertebrae. [WP,unvetted].

thoracic spinal cord gray matter [UBERON_0014636]

A gray matter of spinal cord that is part of a thoracic spinal cord.

thoracic spinal cord ventral horn [UBERON_0014610]

A ventral horn of spinal cord that is part of a thoracic spinal cord.

thoracic vein [UBERON_0005194]

A vein that is part of a thorax [Automatically generated definition].

tissue [UBERON_0000479]

Multicellular anatomical structure that consists of many cells of one or a few types, arranged in an extracellular matrix such that their long-range organisation is at least partly a repetition of their short-range organisation.

trachea [UBERON_0003126]

The trachea is the portion of the airway that attaches to the bronchi as it branches [GO:dph].

trachea basement membrane [UBERON_0009653]

A basement membrane that is part of a trachea.

trachea blood vessel [UBERON_0003505]

A blood vessel that is part of a trachea.

trachea cartilage [UBERON_0003604]

The ring-shaped cartilaginous structures that support the trachea.

trachea connective tissue [UBERON_0003571]

A portion of connective tissue that is part of a trachea.

trachea elastic tissue [UBERON_0003617]

An elastic tissue that is part of a trachea [Automatically generated definition].

trachea gland [UBERON_0005203]

A tubuloacinar seromucous gland that is located principally in the submucosa of the trachea. Excretory ducts from this gland pass through the lamina propria to the tracheal lumen.

trachea non-cartilage connective tissue [UBERON_0009644]

[trachea connective tissue; trachea non-cartilage connective tissue]

trachea pre-cartilage rings [UBERON_0007267]

A pre-cartilage condensation that is part of a trachea.

tracheal mucosa [UBERON_0000379]

A mucosa that is part of a respiratory airway.

tracheobronchial epithelium [UBERON_0008397]

Epithelium pertaining to the trachea and bronchi.

tracheobronchial tree [UBERON_0007196]

The structure from the trachea, bronchi, and bronchioles that forms the airways that supply air to the lungs. The lining of the tracheobronchial tree consists of ciliated columnar epithelial cells.

transitional anatomical structure [UBERON_0016888]

An embryonic anatomical entity that will turn into one or more other anatomical entities, perhaps with other anatomical entities, later in development.

transparent eye structure [UBERON_0005389]

A transparent structure that is part of a visual sense organ, the function of which is to direct or focus light onto a photoreceptor array.

transudate [UBERON_0007779]

Any bodily fluid that has passed through a membrane such as the capillary wall, as a result of unbalanced hydrostatic and osmotic forces.

transverse cervical artery [UBERON_0012324]

The transverse cervical artery (transverse artery of neck, transversa colli artery) is a branch of the thyrocervical trunk, running at a higher level than the suprascapular artery.

trigeminal ganglion [UBERON_0001675]

The cranial ganglion that is associated with and extends fibers into the trigeminal nerve.

trigeminal nerve [UBERON_0001645]

Cranial nerve that has three branches - the ophthalmic (supplying the skin of the nose and upper jaw), the maxillary and the mandibular (supplying the lower jaw).

trigeminal nerve muscle [UBERON_0018544]

Muscle innervated by the trigeminal nerve (Cranial Nerve V).

trigeminal neural crest [UBERON_0005563]

Cranial neural crest which gives rise to the trigeminal ganglion.

trigeminal nuclear complex [UBERON_0007641]

The sensory trigeminal nerve nuclei are the largest of the cranial nerve nuclei, and extend through the whole of the midbrain, pons and medulla. There is also a distinct trigeminal motor nucleus that is medial to the chief sensory nucleus[WP].

trigeminal nucleus [UBERON_0002925]

A nucleus of brain that is part of a trigeminal nuclear complex.

trigeminal placode complex [UBERON_0003070]

A neurogenic placode that arises at the level of the midbrain-hindbrain boundary and develops into a trigeminal ganglion.

trophectoderm [UBERON_0004345]

Outermost layer of cells in the blastodermic vesicle, which will develop into the trophoblast layer and then contact the endometrium and take part in establishing the embryo’s means of nutrition.

trophoblast [UBERON_0000088]

The mesectodermal cell layer arising from the trophectoderm that erodes the uterine mucosa and contributes to the formation of the placenta. Aggregate of cells forming the outer layer of a blastocyst, which provide nutrients to the embryo and develop into a large part of the placenta. They are formed during the first stage of pregnancy and are the first cells to differentiate from the fertilized egg. [Wikipedia:Trophoblast]

truncus arteriosus [UBERON_0002061]

The truncus arteriosus and bulbus cordis are divided by the aorticopulmonary septum. The truncus arteriosus gives rise to the ascending aorta and the pulmonary trunk. The bulbus cordis gives rise to the smooth parts (outflow tract) of the left and right ventricles.

trunk [UBERON_0002100]

Organism subdivision which is the part of the body posterior to the cervical region (or head, when cervical region not present) and anterior to the caudal region. Includes the sacrum when present.

trunk blood vessel [UBERON_0003513]

A blood vessel that is part of a trunk [Automatically generated definition].

trunk bone [UBERON_0003463]

A bone that is part of a trunk [Automatically generated definition].

trunk connective tissue [UBERON_0003586]

A portion of connective tissue that is part of a trunk [Automatically generated definition].

trunk ganglion [UBERON_0007134]

Ganglion which is located in the trunk.

trunk mesenchyme [UBERON_0005256]

Mesenchyme that is part of a developing trunk.

trunk neural crest [UBERON_0003083]

Trunk portion of the neural crest. The trunk neural crest lies between the vagal and sacral neural crest and gives rise to two groups of cells. One group migrates dorsolateral and populates the skin, forming pigment cells and the other migrates ventrolateral through the anterior sclerotome to become the epinephrine-producing cells of the adrenal gland and the neurons of the sympathetic nervous system. Some cells remain in the sclerotome to form the dorsal root ganglia [Wikipedia].

trunk paraxial mesoderm [UBERON_0009618]

[trunk paraxial mesoderm; is part of; trunk paraxial mesenchyme; material anatomical entity; trunk mesenchyme]

trunk region element [UBERON_0005177]

An organ or element that part of the trunk region. The trunk region can be further subdividied into thoracic (including chest and thoracic cavity) and abdominal (including abdomen and pelbis) regions.

trunk somite [UBERON_0005598]

A somite that is part of a trunk.

tube [UBERON_0000025]

Any hollow cylindrical anatomical structure containing a lumen through which substances are transported.

tube lumen [UBERON_0005082]

A hole in a tube[GO].

tunica adventitia of artery [UBERON_0007240]

A tunica adventitia that is part of a artery.

tunica adventitia of blood vessel [UBERON_0005734]

The outermost layer of a blood vessel, composed mainly of fibrous tissue.

tunica adventitia of vein [UBERON_0007241]

A tunica adventitia that is part of a vein.

tunica fibrosa of eyeball [UBERON_0012430]

The sclera and cornea form the fibrous tunic of the bulb of the eye; the sclera is opaque, and constitutes the posterior five-sixths of the tunic; the cornea is transparent, and forms the anterior sixth.

tunica intima [UBERON_0002523]

The innermost layer of a blood vessel which is a lining of endothelial cells facing the lumen[Kardong].

tunica intima of artery [UBERON_0005740]

A tunica intima that is part of a artery.

tunica intima of vein [UBERON_0007242]

A tunica intima that is part of a vein.

tunica media [UBERON_0002522]

The middle layer of an artery or vein. [WP,unvetted]. May be composed of smooth muscle and elastic tissue

tunica media of artery [UBERON_0007239]

A tunica media that is part of a artery.

tunica media of pulmonary trunk [UBERON_0006563]

Tunica media of artery which is continuous with the myocardium of right ventricle.[FMA].

tunica media of vein [UBERON_0007243]

A tunica media that is part of a vein.

unilaminar epithelium [UBERON_0000490]

Epithelium which consists of a single layer of epithelial cells. Examples: endothelium, mesothelium, glandular squamous epithelium.[FMA].

upper back muscle [UBERON_0008243]

A muscle of back that is part of a dorsal thoracic segment of trunk.

upper back skin [UBERON_0009015]

A zone of skin that is part of a dorsal thoracic segment of trunk.

upper digestive tract [UBERON_0004908]

The region of the digestive tract extending from the mouth cavity through pharynx esophagus stomach and duodenum.

uterine epithelium [UBERON_0006955]

An epithelium that is part of a uterus.

uterine tube infundibulum [UBERON_0003984]

The funnel-like expansion of the abdominal extremity of the uterine tube[MP].

uterine wall [UBERON_0000459]

An anatomical wall that is part of a uterus [Automatically generated definition].

uterus [UBERON_0000995]

The female muscular organ of gestation in which the developing embryo or fetus is nourished until birth.

uterus or analog [UBERON_0006834]

A subdivision of a the reproductive tract in a female organism that is the site of embryo development.

uvea [UBERON_0001768]

The pigmented middle of the three concentric layers that make up an eye, consisting of the iris, ciliary body and choroid[WP,edited].

uveal vein [UBERON_0035546]

[drains; ciliary vein; uveal vein]

vagal neural crest [UBERON_0005428]

Vagal neural crest is adjacent to the first seven somites gives rise to both ganglionic and ectomesenchymal derivatives[ZFA].

vascular cord [UBERON_0006965]

The vascular cord is the primordial vasculature that will develop into blood vessels by the process of tubulogenesis[GO]. The vascular cord is composed of angioblast or vascular endothelial cells in a solid linear mass called a cord. The cord then undergoes tubulogenesis to form the lumen of the vessels[ZFA].

vascular system [UBERON_0007798]

Anatomical system that consists of all blood and lymph vessels.

vasculature [UBERON_0002049]

An interconnected tubular multi-tissue structure contains fluid that is actively transported around the organism[ZFA]. Examples: vasculature of lung, vasculature of face.

vasculature of brain [UBERON_0008998]

System pertaining to blood vessels in the brain.

vasculature of central nervous system [UBERON_0036303]

[material anatomical entity; vasculature of central nervous system plus retina; is part of; vasculature of central nervous system]

vasculature of central nervous system plus retina [UBERON_0036302]

[vasculature of central nervous system plus retina]

vasculature of eye [UBERON_0002203]

Vasculature that is part of the eye region.

vasculature of head [UBERON_0002200]

Vasculature that is part of a head [Automatically generated definition].

vasculature of integument [UBERON_0035549]

The part of the circulatory system that lies within the subcutaneous tissue layers close to the surface of the skin.

vasculature of iris [UBERON_0004118]

A vasculature that is part of a iris [Automatically generated definition].

vasculature of liver [UBERON_0006877]

A vasculature that is part of a liver.

vasculature of muscle organ [UBERON_0004521]

A vasculature that is part of a muscle organ [Automatically generated definition].

vasculature of musculoskeletal system [UBERON_0004522]

A vasculature that is part of a musculoskeletal system [Automatically generated definition].

vasculature of organ [UBERON_0006876]

A vasculature that is part of a organ.

vasculature of respiratory integument [UBERON_3010200]

Blood vessels in respiratory skin.

vasculature of retina [UBERON_0004864]

A vasculature that is part of a retina [Automatically generated definition].

vasculature of spleen [UBERON_0036301]

[is part of; material anatomical entity; vasculature of spleen; vasculature of trunk; vasculature of organ]

vasculature of trunk [UBERON_0002201]

A vasculature that is part of a trunk [Automatically generated definition].

vein [UBERON_0001638]

Any of the tubular branching vessels that carry blood from the capillaries toward the heart.

vein of abdomen [UBERON_0013126]

A vein that is part of a abdomen.

vein of lip [UBERON_0013136]

A vein that drains a lip.

vein of lower lip [UBERON_0003478]

The inferior labial vein is the vein receiving blood from the lower lip.

vena cava [UBERON_0004087]

Any of the veins that carries deoxygenated blood from a part of the body into the right atrium of the heart.

vena cava endothelium [UBERON_0004698]

An endothelium that is part of a vena cava [Automatically generated definition].

venous blood [UBERON_0013756]

A blood that is part of a vein.

venous blood vessel [UBERON_0003920]

A blood vessel that carries blood from the capillaries toward the heart. Compare to: vein

venous system [UBERON_0004582]

The part of the cardiovascular system consisting of all venous vessels. In vertebrates with a double circulation, this can be divided into systemic and pulmonary portions.

venous system endothelium [UBERON_0004701]

An endothelium that is part of a venous system [Automatically generated definition].

venous system smooth muscle [UBERON_0004696]

A portion of smooth muscle tissue that is part of a venous system [Automatically generated definition].

ventral horn of spinal cord [UBERON_0002257]

The ventral grey column of the spinal cord[MP]. The neurons of the ventral region of the mature spinal cord participate in motor output[GO].

ventral pancreas [UBERON_0009709]

[is part of; endoderm-derived structure; develops from; ventral pancreatic bud; pancreatis ventralis; ventral pancreas; pancreas ventral primordium; exocrine gland; has developmental contribution from; trunk region element]

ventral pancreatic bud [UBERON_0003924]

Pancreatic bud that gives rise to the major pancreatic duct.

ventral pancreatic duct [UBERON_0001064]

A duct joining the pancreas to the common bile duct to supply pancreatic juices which aid in digestion provided by the exocrine pancreas. The pancreatic duct joins the common bile duct just prior to the ampulla of Vater, after which both ducts perforate the medial side of the second portion of the duodenum at the major duodenal papilla.

venule [UBERON_0001979]

One of the minute vessels that collect deoxygenated blood from the capillary plexuses returns it to the veins.

venule of anorectum [UBERON_8410008]

A venule that is located in the anorectum.

venule of colon [UBERON_8410048]

A venule located in the colon.

vessel [UBERON_0000055]

A tubular structure that contains, conveys body fluid, such as blood or lymph.

vestibulo-auditory system [UBERON_0002105]

Sensory system responsible for the perception of spatial orientation and auditory stimuli.

visceral abdominal adipose tissue [UBERON_0014454]

Subcutaneous adipose tissue that is located in the peritoneal cavity.

visceral fat [UBERON_0035818]

Any fat deposit surrounding a visceral organ.

visceral peritoneum [UBERON_0001178]

The inner layer of peritoneum that is wrapped around organs located inside the intraperitoneal space.

visceral pleura [UBERON_0002401]

The inner serous membrane of the pulmonary pleural. The visceral pleura lines the lungs.

visceral serous membrane [UBERON_0022350]

Serous membrane layer that is adjacent to and lines an organ.

visceral serous pericardium [UBERON_0002425]

Visceral serous membrane which is continuous with the parietal serous pericardium and is attached to the myocardium[FMA].

viscus [UBERON_0002075]

An organ that is located within the body cavity (or in its extension, in the scrotum); it consists of organ parts that are embryologically derived from endoderm, splanchnic mesoderm or intermediate mesoderm; together with other organs, the viscus constitutes the respiratory, gastrointestinal, urinary, reproductive and immune systems, or is the central organ of the cardiovascular system. Examples: heart, lung, esophagus, kidney, ovary, spleen.

visual system [UBERON_0002104]

The sensory system subserving the sense of vision.

vitelline artery [UBERON_0006002]

The paired arteries that carry blood to the yolk sac from the dorsal aorta. Development notes:; the vitelline arteries give rise to the celiac artery, superior mesenteric artery, and inferior mesenteric artery in the adult[MP:0010664]

vitelline blood vessel [UBERON_0004365]

Blood vessel that is connected to the yolk sac.

vitelline vasculature [UBERON_0004374]

Vascular network that is connected to the yolk sac.

vitelline vein [UBERON_0005487]

The paired veins that carry blood from the yolk sac back to the embryo.

wall of anal canal [UBERON_0036362]

[is part of; anal canal wall; wall of large intestine; wall of anal canal; ectoderm-derived structure]

wall of blood vessel [UBERON_0035965]

[blood vessel layer; mesoderm-derived structure; wall of blood vessel; vascular wall; composed_primarily_of; is part of; material anatomical entity; anatomical wall]

wall of brachiocephalic artery [UBERON_0036351]

[brachiocephalic arterial wall; wall of brachiocephalic artery; is part of; artery wall]

wall of common carotid artery [UBERON_0037094]

[wall of common carotid artery; common carotid arterial wall; is part of; common carotid artery plus branches; structure with developmental contribution from neural crest; artery wall]

wall of esophagus [UBERON_0001096]

An anatomical wall that is part of a esophagus [Automatically generated definition].

wall of eyeball [UBERON_0036925]

[wall of eyeball; ectoderm-derived structure; is part of; eyeball wall; material anatomical entity; eyeball of camera-type eye; anatomical wall]

wall of gallbladder [UBERON_0036343]

[is part of; endoderm-derived structure; gall bladder; material anatomical entity; gallbladder wall; wall of gallbladder; abdominal wall]

wall of heart [UBERON_0037144]

Wall of organ which has as its parts the endocardium, myocardium , epicardium, and the cardiac septum, surrounded by the pericardial sac proper and is continuous with the walls of the systemic and pulmonary arterial and venous trees.

wall of intestine [UBERON_0001262]

An anatomical wall that is part of a intestine [Automatically generated definition].

wall of large intestine [UBERON_0001169]

An anatomical wall that is part of a large intestine [Automatically generated definition].

wall of left ventricle [UBERON_0036285]

Wall of ventricle which is continuous with the wall of aorta.

wall of pulmonary artery [UBERON_0036422]

[wall of pulmonary artery; artery wall; is part of; structure with developmental contribution from neural crest; pulmonary arterial wall]

wall of right ventricle [UBERON_0036286]

Wall of ventricle which is continuous with the wall of pulmonary trunk.

wall of small intestine [UBERON_0001168]

An anatomical wall that is part of a small intestine [Automatically generated definition].

wall of stomach [UBERON_0001167]

The layered structure that makes up the stomach, typiclly consists of a serous coat, a muscular coat, a mucous membrane, and other tissue layers in between.

wall of subclavian artery [UBERON_0036352]

[subclavian arterial wall; is part of; wall of subclavian artery; artery wall]

wall of synovial tendon sheath [UBERON_0036553]

[serous membrane; anatomical wall; wall of synovial tendon sheath; is part of]

wall of uterine tube [UBERON_0036441]

[reproductive structure; is part of; wall of oviduct; material anatomical entity; wall of uterine tube; fallopian tube; anatomical wall; mesoderm-derived structure]

yellow bone marrow [UBERON_0000332]

Bone marrow in which the fat cells predominate in the meshes of the reticular network.

yolk sac [UBERON_0001040]

A sac-like expansion of the ventral wall of the intestine, narrowed into a yolk stalk near the body[Hyman’s]. Membranous sac attached to an embryo, providing early nourishment in the form of yolk in bony fishes, sharks, reptiles, birds, and primitive mammals. It functions as the developmental circulatory system of the human embryo, before internal circulation begins. In the mouse, the yolk sac is the first site of blood formation, generating primitive macrophages and erythrocytes[WP].

yolk sac blood island [UBERON_0011919]

Masses of developing blood cells attached to endothelium in the yolk sac.

yolk sac cavity [UBERON_0005251]

An anatomical cavity that is part of a yolk sac [Automatically generated definition].

yolk sac endoderm [UBERON_0003257]

The portion of the yolk sac that is derived from endoderm and lines the yolk sac.

zona pellucida [UBERON_0000086]

A glycoprotein membrane surrounding the plasma membrane of an oocyte. It is a vital constitutive part of the latter, external but not extraneous to it. The zona pellucida first appears in multilaminar primary oocytes.

zone of bone organ [UBERON_0005913]

[is part of; bone element; bone organ zone; material anatomical entity; bone tissue; zone of bone organ; zone of organ; composed_primarily_of]

zone of organ [UBERON_0034944]

[organ zonal region; organ part; zone of organ; organ region with floating fiat boundary]

zone of skin [UBERON_0000014]

Any portion of the organ that covers that body and consists of a layer of epidermis and a layer of dermis.

zone of stomach [UBERON_0009870]

A division of the stomach. The stomach can be divided based on mucosal histology (glandular epithelium and gastric glands) and the relative position and type of gastric gland.

zygomaticotemporal nerve [UBERON_0036264]

The zygomaticotemporal nerve or zygomaticotemporal branch (temporal branch) is derived from the maxillary branch of the trigeminal nerve (Cranial nerve V). It runs along the lateral wall of the orbit in a groove in the zygomatic bone, receives a branch of communication from the lacrimal, and passes through zygomaticotemporal foramen in the zygomatic bone to enter the temporal fossa. It ascends between the bone, and substance of the Temporalis muscle, pierces the temporal fascia about 2.5 cm. above the zygomatic arch, and is distributed to the skin of the side of the forehead, and communicates with the facial nerve and with the auriculotemporal branch of the mandibular nerve. As it pierces the temporal fascia, it gives off a slender twig, which runs between the two layers of the fascia to the lateral angle of the orbit.

zygote stage [UBERON_0000106]

A stage at which the organism is a single cell produced by means of sexual reproduction.


Last modified January 5, 2022: adding UBERON (139f6ec)